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ERIC Number: EJ945908
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 113
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9010
Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review
Berry, Christopher M.; Clark, Malissa A.; McClure, Tara K.
Journal of Applied Psychology, v96 n5 p881-906 Sep 2011
The correlation between cognitive ability test scores and performance was separately meta-analyzed for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White racial/ethnic subgroups. Compared to the average White observed correlation ([image omitted] = 0.33, N = 903,779), average correlations were lower for Black samples ([image omitted] = 0.24, N = 112,194) and Hispanic samples ([image omitted] = 0.30, N = 51,205) and approximately equal for Asian samples ([image omitted] = 0.33, N = 80,705). Despite some moderating effects (e.g., type of performance criterion, decade of data collection, job complexity), validity favored White over Black and Hispanic test takers in almost all conditions that included a sizable number of studies. Black-White validity comparisons were possible both across and within the 3 broad domains that use cognitive ability tests for high-stakes selection and placement: civilian employment, educational admissions, and the military. The trend of lower Black validity was repeated in each domain; however, average Black-White validity differences were largest in military studies and smallest in educational and employment studies. Further investigation of the reasons for these validity differences is warranted. (Contains 6 tables.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A