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ERIC Number: EJ944664
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Oct
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 26
ISSN: ISSN-0036-6803
A Comparison of Concrete and Virtual Manipulative Use in Third- and Fourth-Grade Mathematics
Burns, Barbara A.; Hamm, Ellen M.
School Science and Mathematics, v111 n6 p256-261 Oct 2011
The primary purpose of this classroom experiment was to examine the effectiveness of concrete (hands-on) manipulatives as compared with virtual (computer-based) manipulatives on student review of fraction concepts in third grade and introduction of symmetry concepts in fourth grade. A pretest-posttest design was employed with a sample of 91 third-grade students and 54 fourth-grade students who were randomly assigned to complete a lesson using either concrete or virtual manipulatives. Students used a variety of manipulative materials during the lessons. Results of the posttest suggest that student learning was unchanged by lesson condition. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774. Tel: 800-825-7550; Tel: 201-748-6645; Fax: 201-748-6021; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New York