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Solano-Flores, Guillermo – Applied Measurement in Education, 2014
This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Test Items, Probability, Test Bias
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao – Teachers College Record, 2015
Background: While illustrations are widely used in international test comparisons, very scant research has been conducted on their design and on their influence on student performance. It is not clear how the features of illustration act in combination supporting students' access to the content of items or increasing their interpretation demands.…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, International Education, Educational Assessment
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey – International Journal of Testing, 2016
We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…
Descriptors: Semiotics, Difficulty Level, Test Items, Science Tests
Solano-Flores, Guillermo – Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, 2012
The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…
Descriptors: Limited English Speaking, Translation, English, Test Construction
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min – Educational Research and Evaluation, 2013
We discuss generalizability (G) theory and the fair and valid assessment of linguistic minorities, especially emergent bilinguals. G theory allows examination of the relationship between score variation and language variation (e.g., variation of proficiency across languages, language modes, and social contexts). Studies examining score variation…
Descriptors: Measurement, Testing, Language Proficiency, Test Construction
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Kachchaf, Rachel; Solano-Flores, Guillermo – Applied Measurement in Education, 2012
We examined how rater language background affects the scoring of short-answer, open-ended test items in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs). Four native English and four native Spanish-speaking certified bilingual teachers scored 107 responses of fourth- and fifth-grade Spanish-speaking ELLs to mathematics items administered in…
Descriptors: Error of Measurement, English Language Learners, Scoring, Bilingual Teachers
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo – Educational Researcher, 2008
The testing of English language learners (ELLs) is, to a large extent, a random process because of poor implementation and factors that are uncertain or beyond control. Yet current testing practices and policies appear to be based on deterministic views of language and linguistic groups and erroneous assumptions about the capacity of assessment…
Descriptors: Generalizability Theory, Testing, Second Language Learning, Error of Measurement
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min – Educational Assessment, 2009
We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…
Descriptors: Scores, Testing, Second Language Learning, English (Second Language)
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2009
We addressed the challenge of scoring cognitive interviews in research involving multiple cultural groups. We interviewed 123 fourth- and fifth-grade students from three cultural groups to probe how they related a mathematics item to their personal lives. Item meaningfulness--the tendency of students to relate the content and/or context of an item…
Descriptors: Generalizability Theory, Scoring, Error of Measurement, Grade 5
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Barnett-Clarke, Carne; Kachchaf, Rachel R. – Educational Assessment, 2013
We examined the performance of English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs on Grade 4 and Grade 5 mathematics content knowledge (CK) and academic language (AL) tests. CK and AL items had different semiotic loads (numbers of different types of semiotic features) and different semiotic structures (relative frequencies of different semiotic…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Performance, Mathematics Tests, Semiotics
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Niño, Luis A.; Vázquez-Muñoz, Mariana – International Journal of Testing, 2015
Indicators of academic achievement for bilingual students can be inaccurate due to linguistic heterogeneity. For indigenous populations, language shift (the gradual replacement of one language by another) is a factor that can increase this heterogeneity and poses an additional challenge for valid testing. We investigated whether and how indigenous…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Maya (People), Preschool Children, Mathematics Tests
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min – Assessment for Effective Intervention, 2008
The dependability of academic achievement measures for English language learners (ELLs) is influenced by three facts: (a) Each ELL has unique strengths and weaknesses in each language mode (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) both in English and in his or her first language, (b) each test item poses a different set of linguistic demands…
Descriptors: Generalizability Theory, Test Items, Dialects, Academic Achievement
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Kachchaf, Rachel; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Nguyen-Le, Khanh – Educational Assessment, 2014
We address valid testing for English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are schooled in English while they are still acquiring English as a second language. Also, we address the need for procedures for systematically developing ELL testing accommodations--changes in tests intended to support ELLs to gain access to the…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Testing Accommodations, Illustrations, Educational Testing
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo – Teachers College Record, 2006
This article examines the intersection of psychometrics and sociolinguists in the testing of English language learners (ELLs); it discusses language, dialect, and register as sources of measurement error. Research findings show that the dialect of the language in which students are tested (e.g., local or standard English) is as important as…
Descriptors: Second Language Learning, Test Construction, Sociolinguistics, Psychometrics
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Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2006
We contend that generalizability (G) theory allows the design of psychometric approaches to testing English-language learners (ELLs) that are consistent with current thinking in linguistics. We used G theory to estimate the amount of measurement error due to code (language or dialect). Fourth- and fifth-grade ELLs, native speakers of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Grade 4, Grade 5, English (Second Language)
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