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ERIC Number: EJ1027928
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014
Pages: 8
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1539-9664
Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile
Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima
Education Next, v41 n1 p54-61 Win 2014
Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to major improvements in the quality of life. Millions of Brazilians and Chileans have joined the middle class, and the percentage living in poverty has plummeted. The quality of public education has also improved substantially in both countries since 1990. So why are citizens in these countries taking to the streets? The authors of this article write that the core problem is that the quality of schooling has not caught up with the improvements in the standard of living. Brazil and Chile are increasingly middle-class nations but still have the school systems of developing countries. Both are ranked in the bottom quarter of participating countries on PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). Brazil ranked 53 and Chile 44 out of 65 countries that participated in the most recent PISA reading exam. While the demonstrations in Brazil and Chile will eventually subside, their roots will surely remain a societal force. Newly empowered middle-class citizens will continue to engage, until leaders are able to propel society forward at a faster rate and the schools are ranked among the top performers rather than just the top improvers.
Hoover Institution. Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6010. Tel: 800-935-2882; Fax: 650-723-8626; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Brazil; Chile
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment