ERIC Number: EJ851389
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2009-Aug
Abstractor: As Provided
School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v52 n4 p856-871 Aug 2009
Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing chess. Children's chess knowledge and experience was assessed, and each child was classified as a novice or an expert player. Each child participated in 3 speaking tasks: General Conversation, Chess Conversation, and Chess Explanation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (J. F. Miller & R. Chapman, 2003), segmented into T-units, and coded for finite clauses. Each speaking task was analyzed for total T-units; mean length of T-unit; clausal density; and nominal, relative, and adverbial clause use. Results: Total T-units, mean length of T-unit, clausal density, and the use of each type of subordinate clause was substantially higher in the Chess Explanation task compared with the Chess Conversation task or the General Conversation task. Compared with the novices, the experts knew more about chess, had played longer, and were stronger players. Nevertheless, the novices and experts did not differ on any of the language factors for any of the speaking tasks. Conclusions: Language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children are strongly influenced by the speaking task. When children are presented with a motivating and challenging topic, they rise to the occasion to explain the finer details of it to a naive adult. (Contains 6 tables, 4 figures and 1 footnote.)
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Form Classes (Languages), Children, Games, Evaluation Methods, Task Analysis, Syntax, Knowledge Level, Cognitive Development, Child Development, Elementary Secondary Education
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Tel: 800-638-8255; Fax: 301-571-0457; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web site: http://jslhr.asha.org
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A