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ERIC Number: EJ942511
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Sep
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 21
ISSN: ISSN-2154-1647
Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment
Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John
Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, v46 n3 p425-435 Sep 2011
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with multiple disabilities that included a visual impairment. First, an assessment was conducted to determine the preferred (i.e., reinforcing) and non-preferred items for each participant. Then, a multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the adapted training. Data were collected across baseline, training, and maintenance conditions, and generalization probes were conducted periodically throughout all conditions. All four participants learned requesting skills, generalized these skills to their classrooms, and maintained the skills after training. Recommendations are presented for future research regarding the use of adapted PECS with other AAC programs. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children. DDD, P.O. Box 3512, Fayetteville, AR 72702. Tel: 479-575-3326; Fax: 479-575-6676; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A