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ERIC Number: EJ901790
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 52
ISSN: ISSN-1937-0814
Stereotype Threat in Middle School: The Effects of Prior Performance on Expectancy and Test Performance
Howard, Keith E.; Anderson, Kenneth A.
Middle Grades Research Journal, v5 n3 p119-137 2010
Stereotype threat research has demonstrated how presenting situational cues in a testing environment, such as raising the salience of negative stereotypes, can adversely affect test performance (Perry, Steele, & Hilliard, 2003; Steele & Aronson, 1995) and expectancy (Cadinu, Maass, Frigerio, Impagliazzo, & Latinotti, 2003; Stangor, Carr, & Kiang, 1998) for members of groups that have negative stereotypes associated with them. Although there have been over a decade of empirical research studies replicating stereotype threat effects in college settings, relatively little research has been published documenting stereotype threat with K-12 students (Jordan & Lovett, 2007). Anxiety is presumed to be a factor in observed stereotype threat impairment, particularly when students are assessed on content that is at the frontier of their knowledge base (Steele, 1997). However, in the K-12 setting, where identification with academics is presumably more varied, the research is mixed at best. This study examined the effects of stereotype threat and prior performance on familiar academic tasks in a predominantly Latino and African American middle school setting. Prior standardized test performance was found to be significantly correlated with expectancy and performance. An interaction effect was observed between stereotype threat status and prior performance level on expectancy. Stereotype threat status did not significantly affect expectancy for the highest and lowest performing groups as their expectancy levels were not significantly different irrespective of threat status. However, there was a significant adverse effect on expectancy for the moderately performing group, which may best represent those students being assessed at the frontier of their knowledge base. These findings are discussed as they relate to the factors in predominantly minority K-12 settings that may help to identify potential stereotype-related threats to test performance. (Contains 4 figures and 5 tables.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California