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ERIC Number: EJ761694
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007
Pages: 27
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: 46
ISSN: ISSN-0098-9495
An Alternative Approach to Measuring Horizontal and Vertical Equity in School Funding
Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Michael, Robert S.
Journal of Education Finance, v32 n4 p395-421 Spr 2007
Although the notions of vertical and horizontal equity are straightforward, constructing valid measures of each has proven difficult in states that make revenue adjustments for multiple factors. In this article we introduce an alternative approach for assessing horizontal and vertical equity that addresses this problem. This approach is based on the multivariate relationships between a school district's per-pupil revenues and the various factors used to determine per-pupil funding in the district's state. The vertical equity metrics are based on how close the linear relationships between per-pupil funding and vertical equity factors are to their intended values. We examine horizontal equity by looking at the unexplained variations in per-pupil funding levels from the same model. This leads to improved measurement of "equal treatment of equals" without assuming that all school districts have comparable funding needs. We use data for 292 public school districts in Indiana to illustrate how the new measures can be implemented and whether changes in the state's foundation program in 2005 resulted in gains in horizontal and vertical equity. (Contains 2 figures and 8 tables.)
University of Illinois Press. 1325 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820-6903. Tel: 217-244-0626; Fax: 217-244-8082; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Indiana