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ERIC Number: EJ1108740
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-2295-3159
The Generalized Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory
Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.
Frontline Learning Research, v4 n2 p1-11 2016
The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of internal, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model) which integrates dimensional and external, social comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to my classmates?"). This article presents an extension, the generalized I/E model, which describes effects of dimensional and social comparisons in various areas. Firstly, it proposes that such comparisons are carried out not only within the academic area but also within other areas. Secondly, it proposes effects of social and dimensional comparison for other variables besides self-concepts, i.e. for motivational constructs, learning behaviors, or personality characteristics. The present article closes with an examination and discussion of the contributions of the DCT by applying standards of good theories to it.
European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. Peterseliegang 1, Box 1, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A