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ERIC Number: EJ1007253
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Apr
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 89
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0022-006X
Gender-Specific Effects of an Augmented Written Emotional Disclosure Intervention on Posttraumatic, Depressive, and HIV-Disease-Related Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Ironson, Gail; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Leserman, Jane; Stuetzle, Rick; Fordiani, Joanne; Fletcher, MaryAnn; Schneiderman, Neil
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v81 n2 p284-298 Apr 2013
Objective: Trauma histories and symptoms of PTSD occur at very high rates in people with HIV and are associated with poor disease management and accelerated disease progression. The authors of this study examined the efficacy of a brief written trauma disclosure intervention on posttraumatic stress, depression, HIV-related physical symptoms, and biological markers of HIV disease progression. Method: HIV-infected men and women were randomized to four 30-min expressive writing sessions in either a treatment (trauma writing) or an attention control (daily events writing) condition. The disclosure intervention augmented the traditional emotional disclosure paradigm with probes to increase processing by focusing on trauma appraisals, self-worth, and problem solving. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling (N = 244, intent-to-treat analyses) revealed no significant treatment effects for the group as a whole. Gender by treatment group interactions were significant such that women in the trauma-writing group had significantly reduced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (p = 0.017), depression (p = 0.009), and HIV-related symptoms (p = 0.022) compared with their controls. In contrast, men in the trauma-treatment condition did not improve more than controls on any outcome variables. Unexpectedly, men in the daily-event-writing control group had significantly greater reductions in depression then men in the trauma-writing group. Treatment effects were magnified in women when the analysis was restricted to those with elevated PTSD symptoms at baseline. Conclusions: A brief (4-session) guided written emotional disclosure intervention resulted in significant and meaningful reductions in PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms for women with HIV, but not for men. (Contains 2 figures, 6 tables, and 2 footnotes.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: order@apa.org; Web site: http://www.apa.org/publications
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A