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ERIC Number: EJ1005478
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 0
ISSN: ISSN-0883-0355
The Development of a Questionnaire on Academic Hardiness for Late Elementary School Children
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia
International Journal of Educational Research, v58 p69-78 2013
The purpose of the research was to develop a questionnaire to measure dimensions of academic hardiness in late elementary school children. Questionnaires were distributed to 1474 children. After a set of exploratory factor analyses in studies 1 and 2, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 9-factor solution which explained 55.15% of the total variance. Scale scores showed adequate internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability. The findings are largely supportive to hardiness theory. Each factor conceptually corresponds to one of the three characteristics of the original hardiness theory (commitment, control, and challenge). The results also confirm and strengthen the relation between hardiness and achievement goal orientation in student learning. The nine factors emerging from the factor analysis reflect the different ways in which late elementary school children try to cope with school failure. The findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature. (Contains 7 tables.)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A