NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED361122
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1993
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?
Sherwood, Charles
Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little improvement in student achievement. Some studies presented evidence that students required to repeat a grade actually made less progress than comparable classmates who were promoted. In addition, there are many studies that demonstrate significant psychological damage to children, particularly in terms of lowered self-esteem. Still others associate an increase in the dropout level with retention in grade. In Florida, a number of approaches to improving student achievement without resorting to grade retention have been proposed. Among them are the following: (1) tutorial programs, including peer tutoring, cross-age tutoring, and adult volunteer tutoring, coordinated with classroom instruction; (2) extended basic skills programs, which eliminate "non-essentials" from the student day, with the additional time being applied to reading, writing, and mathematics; (3) cooperative learning programs; (4) extended-year programs, achieved in Florida because of funding constraints through summer school; and (5) individualized instruction through such technologies as interactive video, word processing, and story starters. (Contains 36 references.) (AC)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A