ERIC Number: ED144856
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Governmental Objectives in Exchanges of Persons Programs.
Harkness, Albert, Jr.
The paper questions whether educational and cultural activities sponsored by the United States government should be aimed at foreign policy objectives or should be treated as ends in themselves. Arguments are presented by political leaders, educators, and government officials in favor of and against cultural exchange as a form of foreign policy propaganda. Exchanges between the United States and pluralistic, industrialized societies are compared with exchanges with less developed countries and with societies where an adversary political climate exists. The most effective type of exchange with industrialized nations such as Great Britain are Selected Leader Grants, which allow foreign political leaders to visit the United States. In developing nations, exchanges which strengthen the educational and cultural infrastructure of the recipient country have been most successful. Exchanges with adversary countries are the most difficult to organize, classify, and evaluate. Most exchanges with a totalitarian society are on a government-to-government basis, but there have been private exchanges of art treasures and sporting events between the United States and communist countries. The conclusion is that academic, artistic, and athletic exchanges should be directed by the same governmental agency, be part of a total foreign policy, and exhibit long range rather than immediate political, tactical purposes. (Author/DB)
Descriptors: Administrative Change, Administrative Organization, Cultural Activities, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Exchange, Cultural Interrelationships, Data Analysis, Developing Nations, Evaluation, Exchange Programs, Global Approach, Government Role, Intercultural Programs, Objectives, Policy Formation, Program Administration, Program Evaluation, Resource Allocation
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Note: Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International Society for Educational, Cultural and Scientific Interchanges (Saint Louis, Missouri, March 16-20, 1977)