ERIC Number: ED036475
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1969-Oct
The Independent Student: Educational and Social-Psychological Characteristics; Inquiry Into Innovations Series, Research Report 3.
Sokol, Alvin P.; Marshall, Jon C.
An investigation was conducted to determine the characteristics of independent (self-directing) students and those characteristics which differentiate independent from non-independent students. Each of the 35 teachers who had classroom contact with an 11th grade class of 525 was asked to name five students he felt best characterized non-independent students. Educational characteristics were determined through analysis of grade-point averages and class rank; IQ tests; student activity selection; program orientation (college bound or not); school problems (absences, discipline); and sex. Social-psychological characteristics were examined through scores on inventory scales measuring personal problems, psychological traits, and values. Of the 35 characteristics studied, 17 were found to differentiate significantly (.05 level of confidence) between the two groups. Major findings: Independent students are not only academically talented, but have stable family relationships, emotional stability, adjustment to reality, comprehension and acceptance of the rules and norms of "their" society. A close association exists between school-related difficulties and problems in social-psychological adjustment. Not-independent students have little success in their interaction with their external environment, including the school situation. (Included are complete findings and discussion of implications for schools.) (JS)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: University City School District, MO.