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McCoach, D. Betsy; O'Connell, Ann A.; Reis, Sally M.; Levitt, Heather A. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2006
Using the first 4 waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K), this piecewise 3-level (time-student-school) growth-curve model provides a portrait of students' reading growth over the first 2 years of school. On average, students make much greater reading gains in 1st grade than they do in kindergarten.…
Descriptors: Kindergarten, Reading Improvement, Grade 1, Causal Models