ERIC Number: ED345705
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Oct-24
Reference Count: N/A
Multimedia Football Viewing: Embedded Rules, Practice, and Video Context in IVD Procedural Learning.
Kim, Eunsoon; Young, Michael F.
This study investigated the effects of interactive video (IVD) instruction with embedded rules (production system rules) and practice with feedback on learners' academic achievement and perceived self efficacy in the domain of procedural knowledge for watching professional football. Subjects were 71 female volunteers from undergraduate education classes at the University of Connecticut, who were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) Practice Group; (2) Embedded Rules Group; (3) Combination (practice and embedded rules) Group; and (4) No IVD Lesson Group. Analysis of variance and covariance techniques were used to compare group differences on achievement and self efficacy perceptions. The results indicated that there were significant group differences on achievement and self efficacy. The combination group showed the highest scores on the achievement posttest and self-efficacy measures, whereas the no IVD group showed the lowest scores. It is concluded that learning complex procedural knowledge can be enhanced by practice and /or embedding rule statements into instruction. The combination of both practice and embedded rules showed the best learning. This effect is attributed to improved schema acquisition through the consolidation of clearly stated rules (e.g., the side with the tight end is the strong side) and practice identifying players, formations, and plays. In addition, the rules and video practice activities alone were not sufficient to enhance schema acquisition. A rich video context was needed in which to learn the heavily visual task of understanding professional football. Copies of the pre- and post-tests are appended. (24 references) (Author/DB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers; Tests/Questionnaires
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Northeast Educational Research Association (Ellenville, NY, October 24, 1991).