ERIC Number: ED331841
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Semantic Differential Comparisons of Attributions and Dimensions between U.S. and Israel.
Chandler, Theodore A.; Spies, Carl J.
Beliefs about the causes of success and failure in academic achievement were compared for students in the United States and Israel. The following 11 attributions were placed randomly in a questionnaire format: (1) mood; (2) skill; (3) knowledge; (4) chance; (5) effort; (6) competence; (7) help; (8) ability; (9) task; (10) bias; and (11) luck. Each was followed by a random ordering of five 7-point scales on the following dimensions: external-internal; global-specific (to a particular situation); uncontrollable-controllable; stable-unstable; and predictable-unpredictable. Subjects were asked to rate the attributions. The United States sample included 50 undergraduate education students, 50 graduate education students, 50 undergraduates from an introductory psychology course, and 50 adults who had never attended a college or university. The Israeli sample included 53 undergraduate education students, 80 graduate education students, 56 undergraduate psychology students, and 50 adults without a college background. Three-way factor analyses of variance were used for group, sex, and attributions. Israelis were more internal than were subjects from the United States for task difficulty and luck, and were less predictable on task difficulty, less controllable for competence, but more controllable for luck. In all four groups, attributions of skill, knowledge, and luck revealed the largest differences between the two groups. Results are discussed in terms of the cultural views and experiences of the two populations. The rating scale used is included. (SLD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Adults, Analysis of Variance, Attribution Theory, Causal Models, Comparative Testing, Cross Cultural Studies, Education Majors, Foreign Countries, Graduate Students, Higher Education, Locus of Control, Personality, Psychological Characteristics, Rating Scales, Semantic Differential, Undergraduate Students
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Tests/Questionnaires
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Israel; United States
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, February 13-17, 1991).