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ERIC Number: EJ912998
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 12
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-0161-6463
Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons
Metoyer, Cheryl A.
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, v34 n4 p1-12 2010
Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that relationship. Hence, leadership in American Indian communities then and now is rooted in culture. Leadership as a cultural activity has been and continues to be a powerful force in shaping tribal communities. The stories remain, and contemporary tribal leaders continue to struggle with the communal responsibilities inherent in their positions. The concept of winter lessons, in this article, illustrates the importance of considering a specific tradition and ways of knowing when studying and developing indigenous leaders. The purpose of this article is to analyze leadership in American Indian communities, as reflected in the leadership literature. It identifies three models of Native leadership: (1) traditional; (2) co-creators; and (3) educational environments. (Contains 38 notes.)
American Indian Studies Center at UCLA. 3220 Campbell Hall, Box 951548, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1548. Tel: 310-825-7315; Fax: 310-206-7060; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A