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Gwet, Kilem L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2021
Cohen's kappa coefficient was originally proposed for two raters only, and it later extended to an arbitrarily large number of raters to become what is known as Fleiss' generalized kappa. Fleiss' generalized kappa and its large-sample variance are still widely used by researchers and were implemented in several software packages, including, among…
Descriptors: Sample Size, Statistical Analysis, Interrater Reliability, Computation
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Liu, Xiaofeng Steven; Shin, Hyejo Hailey – Teaching Statistics: An International Journal for Teachers, 2020
Computer simulation can be used to demonstrate why the unbiased sample variance uses degrees of freedom (n-1). This is first demonstrated for sampling from a normal random variable, and in additional simulations for some selected non-normal random variables, namely, chi-square and binomial.
Descriptors: Computer Simulation, Statistics, Sampling, Statistical Bias
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Pashley, Nicole E.; Miratrix, Luke W. – Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 2021
Evaluating blocked randomized experiments from a potential outcomes perspective has two primary branches of work. The first focuses on larger blocks, with multiple treatment and control units in each block. The second focuses on matched pairs, with a single treatment and control unit in each block. These literatures not only provide different…
Descriptors: Causal Models, Statistical Inference, Research Methodology, Computation
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Curby, Timothy; McKnight, Patrick; Alexander, Lisa; Erchov, Simone – Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 2020
Evaluation of college instructors often centers on course ratings; however, there is little evidence that these ratings only reflect teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative importance of three facets of course ratings: instructor, course and occasion. We sampled 2,459 fully-crossed dyads from a large university where two…
Descriptors: Student Evaluation of Teacher Performance, Course Evaluation, Error of Measurement, Teacher Effectiveness
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Alkire, Diana; Warnell, Katherine Rice; Kirby, Laura Anderson; Moraczewski, Dustin; Redcay, Elizabeth – Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2021
The social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are likely influenced by multiple psychological processes, yet most previous studies have focused on a single social domain. In school-aged autistic children (n = 49), we compared the amount of variance in social symptoms uniquely explained by theory of mind (ToM), biological motion perception,…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Theory of Mind
Crawford, Angela R.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Moylan, Laura A.; Zheng, Yuzhu – Assessment for Effective Intervention, 2019
This study describes the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation instrument. The study uses generalizability theory to compare two versions of a rubric, one with general descriptors of performance levels and one with item-specific descriptors of performance levels,…
Descriptors: Teacher Evaluation, Special Education Teachers, Scoring Rubrics, Observation
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Almehrizi, Rashid S. – Journal of Educational Measurement, 2021
Estimates of various variance components, universe score variance, measurement error variances, and generalizability coefficients, like all statistics, are subject to sampling variability, particularly in small samples. Such variability is quantified traditionally through estimated standard errors and/or confidence intervals. The paper derived new…
Descriptors: Error of Measurement, Statistics, Design, Generalizability Theory
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Raykov, Tenko; Calvocoressi, Lisa – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2021
A procedure for evaluating the average R-squared index for a given set of observed variables in an exploratory factor analysis model is discussed. The method can be used as an effective aid in the process of model choice with respect to the number of factors underlying the interrelationships among studied measures. The approach is developed within…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Models, Statistical Analysis, Selection
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Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi Smith, Kristin; Liebfreund, Meghan D. – Journal of Research in Reading, 2021
Background: Studies have demonstrated strong predictive and concurrent validity of curriculum-based measures (CBMs) with high-stakes reading tests, mainly using oral reading fluency (ORF) to predict outcomes. Some studies have found that CBMs' predictive accuracy might vary across demographic subgroups of students. In this study, we investigate…
Descriptors: Oral Reading, Reading Fluency, Curriculum Based Assessment, Reading Tests
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Doroudi, Shayan – AERA Open, 2020
In addition to providing a set of techniques to analyze educational data, I claim that data science as a field can provide broader insights to education research. In particular, I show how the bias-variance tradeoff from machine learning can be formally generalized to be applicable to several prominent educational debates, including debates around…
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Learning Theories, Teaching Methods, Educational Research
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Rowe, Ellen W.; Curby, Timothy W.; Kim, Helyn – Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 2019
This study examined the variance in teacher ratings attributable to teacher, occasion, and child on the original Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). Teachers rated approximately 1,100 girls (52%) and boys (48%) at four public elementary schools over 3 years. About half of the students were rated twice and about a seventh 3 times.…
Descriptors: Teacher Attitudes, Elementary School Teachers, Student Behavior, Elementary School Students
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West, Brady T.; Li, Dan – Sociological Methods & Research, 2019
In face-to-face surveys, interviewer observations are a cost-effective source of paradata for nonresponse adjustment of survey estimates and responsive survey designs. Unfortunately, recent studies have suggested that the accuracy of these observations can vary substantially among interviewers, even after controlling for household-, area-, and…
Descriptors: Observation, Interviews, Error of Measurement, Accuracy
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Qian, Jiahe – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
The finite population correction (FPC) factor is often used to adjust variance estimators for survey data sampled from a finite population without replacement. As a replicated resampling approach, the jackknife approach is usually implemented without the FPC factor incorporated in its variance estimates. A paradigm is proposed to compare the…
Descriptors: Computation, Sampling, Data, Statistical Analysis
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Loosveldt, Geert; Wuyts, Celine; Beullens, Koen – Quality Assurance in Education: An International Perspective, 2018
Purpose: In survey methodology, it is well-known that interviewers can have an impact on the registered answers. This paper aims to focus on one type of interviewer effect that arises from the differences between interviewers in the systematic effects of each interviewer on the answers. In the first case, the authors evaluate interviewer effects…
Descriptors: Interviews, Foreign Countries, Differences, Measurement
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Crawford, Angela R.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Moylan, Laura A.; Zheng, Yuzhu – Grantee Submission, 2018
This study describes the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) teacher observation instrument. Specifically, the study uses generalizability theory to compare two versions of a rubric, one with general descriptors of performance levels and one with item-specific descriptors of…
Descriptors: Special Education Teachers, Direct Instruction, Observation, Teaching Methods
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