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Gati, Itamar – Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1990
Theoretically analyzes career decisions under uncertainty, when career decision maker ranks options rather than choosing best one. Found that how decisions were framed affected ranking of options and quality of decisions. Analysis showed that the rank order of options in optimal ranking always coincided with the rank order of the options by their…
Descriptors: Career Choice, Decision Making, Foreign Countries
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Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Diffley, Ray; Goodyear, Julie; Shanahan, Edward J.; Sternberg, Robert J. – Journal of Educational Psychology, 2009
Two studies were carried out to predict academic success in the highly competitive environment of a private preparatory school, Choate Rosemary Hall. The 1st study focused on the question of whether there are indicators beyond middle school grade-point average (GPA) and standardized test scores that might enhance the validity of measures for…
Descriptors: Private Schools, College Preparation, Residential Schools, Academic Achievement
Bonoma, Thomas V. – 1974
The explanatory cornerstone of most currently viable social theories is a strict cost-gain assumption. The clearest formal explication of this view is contained in subjective expected utility models (SEU), in which individuals are assumed to scale their subjective likelihood estimates of decisional consequences and the personalistic worth or…
Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Decision Making, Psychology, Research Projects
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Dhami, Mandeep K. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2008
Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and…
Descriptors: Probability, Criminal Law, Court Litigation, Decision Making
Hall, Linda De Zell – ProQuest LLC, 2009
Math skills are essential to daily life, impacting a person's ability to function at home, work, and in the community. Although reading has been the focus in recent years, many students struggle in math. The inability to master math calculation and problem solving has contributed to the rising incidence of student failure, referrals for special…
Descriptors: National Curriculum, Mathematics Curriculum, Instructional Development, Intervention
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Roehrig, Alysia D.; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Torgesen, Joseph K. – Journal of School Psychology, 2008
We evaluated the validity of DIBELS ("Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills") ORF ("Oral Reading Fluency") for predicting performance on the "Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test" (FCAT-SSS) and "Stanford Achievement Test" (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously…
Descriptors: Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Reading Achievement, Reading Tests
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Fu, Wai-Tat; Gray, Wayne D. – Cognitive Psychology, 2006
Explicit information-seeking actions are needed to evaluate alternative actions in problem-solving tasks. Information-seeking costs are often traded off against the utility of information. We present three experiments that show how subjects adapt to the cost and information structures of environments in a map-navigation task. We found that…
Descriptors: Information Seeking, Cognitive Processes, Information Utilization, Bayesian Statistics
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Chater, Nick; Vlaev, Ivo; Grinberg, Maurice – Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2008
Theories of choice in economics typically assume that interacting agents act individualistically and maximize their own utility. Specifically, game theory proposes that rational players should defect in one-shot prisoners' dilemmas (PD). Defection also appears to be the inevitable outcome for agents who learn by reinforcement of past choices,…
Descriptors: Game Theory, Cooperation, Selection, Reinforcement
Berson, Janet S. – 1977
This study attempts to clarify part of the decision-making process centering around combining family and career. There are two aspects of the study. In the first, perceived costs of combining roles are assessed and evaluated in light of mother's employment history. The subjects in this part of the study were 141 single women and 43 married women.…
Descriptors: Adults, Career Choice, Child Care, Decision Making
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Kleider, Heather M.; Goldinger, Stephen D. – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2006
Like all probabilistic decisions, recognition memory judgments are based on inferences about the strength and quality of stimulus familiarity. In recent articles, B. W. A. Whittlesea and J. Leboe (2000; J. Leboe & B. W. A. Whittlesea, 2002) proposed that such memory decisions entail various heuristics, similar to well-known heuristics in overt…
Descriptors: Heuristics, Recognition (Psychology), Familiarity, Decision Making
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Leahy, Robert L. – Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 2005
Bipolar individuals engage in risky behavior during manic phases that contributes to their vulnerability to regret during their depressive phases. A cognitive model of risk assessment is proposed in which manic risk assessment is based on exaggeration of current and future resources, high utility for gains, low demands for information to assess…
Descriptors: Risk, Patients, Depression (Psychology), Models
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Walker, Lawrence J.; Gustafson, Paul; Frimer, Jeremy A. – International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2007
This article reviews the concepts and methods of Bayesian statistical analysis, which can offer innovative and powerful solutions to some challenging analytical problems that characterize developmental research. In this article, we demonstrate the utility of Bayesian analysis, explain its unique adeptness in some circumstances, address some…
Descriptors: Bayesian Statistics, Statistical Analysis, Misconceptions, Developmental Psychology
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Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Anthony, Christine; Douglas, Kevin S. – Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2005
Narrative reviews have raised several questions regarding the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) and related scales in institutional settings. In this meta-analysis, the authors coded 273 effect sizes to investigate the association between the Hare scales and a hierarchy of increasingly specific…
Descriptors: Adults, Meta Analysis, Effect Size, Decision Making
Daly, Alan J., Ed. – Harvard Education Press, 2010
"Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal…
Descriptors: School Restructuring, Network Analysis, Educational Change, Educational Technology
van der Linden, Wim J.; Vos, Hans J. – 1994
This paper presents some Bayesian theories of simultaneous optimization of decision rules for test-based decisions. Simultaneous decision making arises when an institution has to make a series of selection, placement, or mastery decisions with respect to subjects from a population. An obvious example is the use of individualized instruction in…
Descriptors: Bayesian Statistics, Decision Making, Foreign Countries, Scores
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