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ERIC Number: EJ1008681
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jun
Pages: 22
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0096-1523
Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Skilled Typewriting: Decomposing the Contributions of Hierarchical Control Loops
Yamaguchi, Motonori; Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, v39 n3 p678-699 Jun 2013
Typing performance involves hierarchically structured control systems: At the higher level, an outer loop generates a word or a series of words to be typed; at the lower level, an inner loop activates the keystrokes comprising the word in parallel and executes them in the correct order. The present experiments examined contributions of the outer- and inner-loop processes to the control of speed and accuracy in typewriting. Experiments 1 and 2 involved discontinuous typing of single words, and Experiments 3 and 4 involved continuous typing of paragraphs. Across experiments, typists were able to trade speed for accuracy but were unable to type at rates faster than 100 ms/keystroke, implying limits to the flexibility of the underlying processes. The analyses of the component latencies and errors indicated that the majority of the trade-offs were due to inner-loop processing. The contribution of outer-loop processing to the trade-offs was small, but it resulted in large costs in error rate. Implications for strategic control of automatic processes are discussed. (Contains 2 tables, 14 figures, and 3 footnotes.)
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Tennessee