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ERIC Number: EJ1407227
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2023
Pages: 30
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1017-7108
EISSN: EISSN-2671-9312
Learner Initiative Through Multimodal Communication Resources in the English Classroom
Soo Kyoung Kwak
English Teaching, v78 n3 p25-54 2023
Using a conversation analysis (CA) framework, this study investigated how kindergarten-aged learners took initiative during classroom interactions through multimodal communication resources. Over a thirteen-week period, data was collected from kindergarten English classroom interactions between two male native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and 125 children divided into six classes. The analysis revealed that learners deployed several multimodal communication resources in teacher-initiated sequences, such as finger-folding gestures, hand-raising, and gaze direction. These multimodal resources were employed to retrieve words, acquire turns, provide answers, and impart other kinds of information. The study also showed how very young learners, with limited linguistic resources, were able to attract the teacher's attention, draw on embodied resources to access a turn, and become active agents influencing the trajectory of both teacher talk and classroom learning. The study concludes with a discussion of learner initiative and multimodal communication resources, and the pedagogical implications carried by the results of the study for classroom interaction with very young learners.
Korea Association of Teachers of English. 6105 English Education Department, Chinju National University of Education, 369beon-gil 3, Jinyangho-ro, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do, 52673, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82-42-629-7381; Fax: +82-42-629-7320; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Kindergarten; Primary Education; Preschool Education
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: South Korea
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A