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ERIC Number: EJ1210951
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Mar
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-2472-5749
Re-Examining the Construct Validity and Causal Relationships of Teaching, Cognitive, and Social Presence in Community of Inquiry Framework
Dempsey, Patrick R.; Zhang, Jie
Online Learning, v23 n1 p62-79 Mar 2019
Despite the prevalence of research on the Community of Inquiry framework and its associated measurement instrument, more research is needed to re-evaluate the factor structure, study the effects of covariates or measurement invariance, and explore the relationships among the three presences. Results of this study indicated that (a) teaching, social, and cognitive presence are each multidimensional and higher order constructs; (b) measurement invariance was fully achieved for gender and partially for age, ethnicity, discipline, and online experience; (c) structural relationships of the three main constructs--teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence-- suggested potential psychometric adjustments. The teaching presence construct in particular should be reconstructed to appropriately reflect and measure the construct as conceptually defined--as a distribution of teaching responsibility and authority--as opposed to how it is currently operationalized in the Community of Inquiry instrument--as a centralization of responsibility and authority with the instructor.
Online Learning Consortium, Inc. P.O. Box 1238, Newburyport, MA 01950. Tel: 888-898-6209; Fax: 888-898-6209; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Maryland