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Harsch, Claudia; Ushloda, Ema; Ladroue, Christophe – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
The project examined the predictive validity of the "TOEFL iBT"® test with a focus on the relationship between TOEFL iBT scores and students' subsequent academic success in postgraduate studies in one leading university in the United Kingdom, paying specific attention to the role of linguistic preparedness as perceived by students and…
Descriptors: Second Language Learning, Language Tests, English (Second Language), Predictive Validity
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Orfield, Gary – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
The Supreme Court has established the parameters within which universities can practice race-conscious affirmative action for college admissions in a series of decisions beginning in l978. The key issues concern the educational impact of campus diversity and whether or not it is necessary to give some consideration to students' race into order to…
Descriptors: College Admission, Affirmative Action, Selective Admission, Court Litigation
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Kim, Sooyeon; Robin, Frederic – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
In this study, we examined the potential impact of item misfit on the reported scores of an admission test from the subpopulation invariance perspective. The target population of the test consisted of 3 major subgroups with different geographic regions. We used the logistic regression function to estimate item parameters of the operational items…
Descriptors: Scores, Test Items, Test Bias, International Assessment
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Reckase, Mark D. – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
A common interpretation of achievement test results is that they provide measures of achievement that are much like other measures we commonly use for height, weight, or the cost of goods. In a limited sense, such interpretations are correct, but some nuances of these interpretations have important implications for the use of achievement test…
Descriptors: Models, Achievement Tests, Test Results, Test Construction
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Li, Feifei – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
An information-correction method for testlet-based tests is introduced. This method takes advantage of both generalizability theory (GT) and item response theory (IRT). The measurement error for the examinee proficiency parameter is often underestimated when a unidimensional conditional-independence IRT model is specified for a testlet dataset. By…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Generalizability Theory, Tests, Error of Measurement
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Nettles, Michael T. – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
In 2009, at the end of the 12-month Great Recession in the United States, the U.S. government established a college degree attainment goal for 60% of 25- to 34-year-olds to earn an associate's or bachelor's degree by the year 2020. In the same year, Lumina Foundation set a similar goal for 60% of 25- to 64-year-olds to earn a high-quality…
Descriptors: Postsecondary Education, Educational Attainment, Educational Objectives, Educational Policy
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Olivieri, María Elena; Markle, Ross – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
From 2006 to 2008, Educational Testing Service (ETS) produced a series of reports titled "A Culture of Evidence," designed to capture a changing climate in higher education assessment. A decade later, colleges and universities face a new set of challenges resulting from societal, technological, and other influences, leading to a need to…
Descriptors: Evidence Based Practice, Higher Education, Educational Assessment, Thinking Skills
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Bejar, Isaac I.; Deane, Paul D.; Flor, Michael; Chen, Jing – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
The report is the first systematic evaluation of the sentence equivalence item type introduced by the "GRE"® revised General Test. We adopt a validity framework to guide our investigation based on Kane's approach to validation whereby a hierarchy of inferences that should be documented to support score meaning and interpretation is…
Descriptors: College Entrance Examinations, Graduate Study, Generalization, Inferences
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Song, Yi; Deane, Paul; Fowles, Mary – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
This study assessed 1,706 eighth-grade students' reasoning abilities through a critique task in an integrated argumentative reading and writing test. Results indicate that the majority of students did not detect fallacious arguments or clearly explain problems in the arguments. They encountered various challenges in critiquing an argument: (a)…
Descriptors: Criticism, Persuasive Discourse, Academic Ability, Grade 8
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Frankel, Lois; Brownstein, Beth; Soiffer, Neil – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
This report describes the pilot conducted in the final phase of a project, Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students With Visual Impairments via MathML, to provide easy-to-use tools for authoring and rendering secondary-school algebra-level math expressions in synthesized speech that is useful for students with blindness or low…
Descriptors: Visual Impairments, Research Reports, Audiovisual Aids, Assistive Technology
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Qian, Xiaoyu; Nandakumar, Ratna; Glutting, Joseoph; Ford, Danielle; Fifield, Steve – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
In this study, we investigated gender and minority achievement gaps on 8th-grade science items employing a multilevel item response methodology. Both gaps were wider on physics and earth science items than on biology and chemistry items. Larger gender gaps were found on items with specific topics favoring male students than other items, for…
Descriptors: Item Analysis, Gender Differences, Achievement Gap, Grade 8
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Zhu, Mengxiao; Zhang, Mo – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
In this paper, we examine the student group discussion processes in a scenario-based assessment of engineering professional skills called Engineering Professional Skills Assessment (EPSA). In the assessment, the students were evaluated through a discussion on a scenario related to an engineering problem with no clear-cut solution. We applied…
Descriptors: Network Analysis, Skill Analysis, Research Reports, Engineering Education
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Guo, Hongwen – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
Data collected from online learning and tutoring systems for individual students showed strong autocorrelation or dependence because of content connection, knowledge-based dependency, or persistence of learning behavior. When the response data show little dependence or negative autocorrelations for individual students, it is suspected that…
Descriptors: Data Collection, Electronic Learning, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Information Utilization
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Ackerman, Debra J.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H. – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
The early education field increasingly is recognizing the key role played by young children's executive function (EF) skills, generally defined as the cognitive abilities that consciously support goal-directed behaviors. To provide the field with an overview of research conducted on this topic over the past 15 years, we review research on the…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Executive Function, Research Needs, Research Reports
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Hao, Jiangang; Chen, Lei; Flor, Michael; Liu, Lei; von Davier, Alina A. – ETS Research Report Series, 2017
Conversations in collaborative problem-solving activities can be used to probe the collaboration skills of the team members. Annotating the conversations into different collaboration skills by human raters is laborious and time consuming. In this report, we report our work on developing an automated annotation system, CPS-rater, for conversational…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Cooperative Learning, Teamwork, Documentation
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