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Janopoulos, Michael – Written Communication, 1989
Investigates experienced university English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) composition instructors' text comprehension when engaged in holistic evaluation of non-native-speakers' (NNS) texts. Concludes that time constraints or use of preestablished rating parameters, do not affect comprehension, and that holistic raters attend to meaning when…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Evaluation Research, Higher Education, Holistic Evaluation
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MacDonald, Susan Peck – Written Communication, 1989
Characterizes writing about literature as data-driven and social science writing as conceptually driven. Describes how the difference shows up in professional writing, the confusion students experience in shifting from one kind of writing to another, the strengths and weaknesses of each, and benefits gained from alternating between the two kinds.…
Descriptors: Academic Discourse, Discourse Analysis, Expository Writing, Higher Education
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Smagorinsky, Peter – Written Communication, 1989
Reviews the history of verbal data in a variety of fields, places protocol analysis in its historical context, and examines more recent claims and criticisms regarding protocol analysis. Concludes that protocol analysis, when conducted according to certain principles, can be an important tool for researching the composing process. (MG)
Descriptors: Language Processing, Protocol Analysis, Reliability, Validity
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Crowley, Sharon – Written Communication, 1989
Discusses the recommendations made by compositionists from 1950 to 1980 to apply the findings of linguists to composition instruction. Argues that the noncontextual orientation of modern linguistics renders it insufficient as a comprehensive source of theoretical or practical assistance in composition instruction. (MG)
Descriptors: Descriptive Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Grammar, Language Usage
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Palacas, Arthur L. – Written Communication, 1989
Suggests that distinguishing between a second-order reflective mentality and a first-order factive mentality is central to the perception of voice. Shows that the particular language interests of compositionists can lead to new understandings about grammar and the relationship between language form and language use. (MG)
Descriptors: Discourse Analysis, Grammar, Language Usage, Linguistic Theory
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Jacobs, Suzanne E. – Written Communication, 1989
Examines definite constructions in 15 editorial articles from the "Christian Science Monitor." Classifies each construction as either re-evoking, new, or inferable. Argues that inferable constructions are most interesting since they indicate what the writer believes the reader is capable of inferring. Concludes that such conventions make…
Descriptors: Audience Awareness, Editorials, Literary Devices, Reading Writing Relationship
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Havelock, Eric A. – Written Communication, 1986
Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Curriculum Enrichment, Higher Education, Information Dissemination
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Tomlinson, Barbara – Written Communication, 1986
Discusses professional writers' use of "metaphorical stories" to describe their composing processes. Maintains that fiction writers' ascription of independence to their characters has profound psychological implications. Cites metaphorical stories as an important means by which authors understand and communicate their composing…
Descriptors: Authors, Characterization, Cognitive Processes, Epistemology
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Harris, Muriel; Wachs, Mary – Written Communication, 1986
Investigated relationships between individual differences in (1) levels of writing skills and (2) proficiencies at simultaneous and successive cognitive processing. Correlated students' writings with the following word and sentence level problems: spelling errors, missing or inappropriate punctuation of sentence parts, missing noun and verb…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Comparative Analysis, Higher Education, Skill Analysis
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Boice, Robert; Meyers, Patricia E. – Written Communication, 1986
Reviews automaticity, effortless writing that enjoys freedom from excessive conscious interference, in terms of its origins in automatic writing and growth into contemporary techniques. Characterizes automaticity as a (1) form of dissociation from consciousness; (2) succor to spontaneity and creativity; and (3) key to understanding why some…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Creative Thinking, Creative Writing, Discovery Processes
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Beauvais, Paul – Written Communication, 1989
Provides representative examples of the problems that diminish the utility of current metadiscourse theories, and proposes an alternative theory that locates metadiscourse within the larger context of speech act theory. Defines metadiscourse as indicators of expositive illocutionary acts, and provides a taxonomy of metadiscursive functions and…
Descriptors: Communication Research, Discourse Analysis, Higher Education, Linguistic Theory
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Brandt, Deborah – Written Communication, 1989
Reappraises conventional distinctions between oral-like and literate-like discourse, particularly Tannen's distinction between involvement focus and message focus. Treats message as an embodiment of involvement, and cohesion as an aspect of a developing writer-reader relationship. Offers speculations for rethinking "literate…
Descriptors: Cohesion (Written Composition), Discourse Analysis, Higher Education, Literacy
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Golden, Joanne M.; Vukelich, Carol – Written Communication, 1989
Uses de Beaugrande's concept analysis system to describe how 20 third graders employed narrative concepts at the local and global levels in written stories, and to assess the coherence of those stories. (SR)
Descriptors: Coherence, Cohesion (Written Composition), Elementary Education, Grade 3
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Nystrand, Martin – Written Communication, 1989
Outlines a social-interactive model of written communication, highlighting the writer's role in negotiations with readers in the medium of text. Reviews and challenges formalist and idealist theories of text meaning. Spells out the rules governing writers' moves by specifying a fundamental axiom and seven corollaries. (SR)
Descriptors: Higher Education, Interaction, Models, Reading Writing Relationship
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Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise – Written Communication, 1989
Relates problems of law text comprehensibility to the legislative writing process. Describes the drafting of three pieces of Swedish consumer legislation at different stages. Summarizes and analyzes the results in relation to rhetorical and sociolinguistic theories of writing. (SR)
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Laws, Legislation
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