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Pushparatnam, Adelle; Seiden, Jonathan; Luna-Bazaldua, Diego – World Bank, 2022
A growing understanding of the importance of children's earliest years has led to an increasing desire to measure early childhood development (ECD) outcomes. There are now nearly 150 tools for measuring ECD outcomes internationally, which can make it challenging to choose an appropriate measurement tool for a given measurement effort. This…
Descriptors: Outcomes of Education, Evaluation Methods, Early Childhood Education, Population Groups
Rahman, Tashmina; Sharma, Uttam – World Bank, 2021
This Note presents results from a series of simulations that aim to capture the impacts that school closures in Bangladesh might have on the learning levels, enrollment and future earnings of children and students using a methodological tool developed by the Education Global Practice of the World Bank. We find that overall loss in learning for…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, School Closing, Foreign Countries
Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Rodriguez Chamussy, Lourdes; Chiarella, Cristina; Oral Savonitto, Isil – World Bank, 2021
In the last decades, developed economies have witnessed significant declines in wages for low-skill workers, increases in employment in high-skill occupations, rapid diffusion of new technology, and expanding offshoring opportunities. Labor markets in developed countries have reallocated labor from manual to cognitive jobs and from routine to…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Females, Gender Bias, Equal Opportunities (Jobs)
Vivek, Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Pradyumna – World Bank, 2021
Education systems in under-resourced environments face several challenges, some of them exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. A possible way to address some of the challenges is to apply information and communication technologies. However, effectively integrating technology into education systems is a complex task. In this paper, factors…
Descriptors: Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Technology Integration, Barriers
Yarrow, Noah; Santoso; Tjahjadi, Alexander Michael; Khairina, Noviandri Nurlaili – World Bank, 2021
This study reviews the implementation of the TKD program related to teachers in DKI Jakarta to identify any initial behavior changes resulting from the policy. The objective of the study is twofold: to identify the level of understanding of stakeholders regarding the performance allowance; and to identify the impact of the performance allowance on…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Educational Change, Incentives
Arnhold, Nina; Bassett, Roberta Malee – World Bank, 2021
As the world seeks to build back better into a new era of green and equitable economic growth, tertiary education systems are at the heart of the big transformations required throughout economies and societies. Tertiary education is vital for the development of human capital and innovation. Strategic and effective investments in tertiary education…
Descriptors: Postsecondary Education, Educational Finance, Financial Support, Equal Education
Muñoz-Najar, Alberto; Gilberto, Alison; Hasan, Amer; Cobo, Cristóbal; Azevedo, João Pedro; Akmal, Maryam – World Bank, 2021
School closures during COVID-19 led to an unprecedented global experiment in the delivery of remote learning. This report seeks to assess what lessons can be drawn from experiences of remote learning during COVID-19 in K-12 education, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries. It focuses on the period from March 2020 to October 2021 and…
Descriptors: School Closing, Distance Education, Online Courses, Educational Technology
Hou, Dingyong; Acevedo, Karina; de Laat, Joost; Larrison, Jennica – World Bank, 2021
Building the Right Skills for Human Capital summarizes the findings from the 2019 skills survey for the adult Kyrgyz population. The skills measures used in the survey focused on literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology rich environments (PSTRE) and followed the same questions and approach as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Human Capital, Adults, Literacy
Crawford, Michael; Marin, Sergio Venegas – World Bank, 2021
The World Bank's focus on foundational skills requires that issues of language and Language of Instruction be brought to the forefront of education policy discussions. Poor Language of Instruction policies harm learning, access, equity, cost-effectiveness, and inclusion. Yet nearly 37% of students in low- and middle-income countries are taught in…
Descriptors: International Organizations, Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Educational Policy
Chicoine, Luke – World Bank, 2020
This article investigates the causal relationship between women's schooling and fertility by exploiting variation generated by the removal of school fees in Ethiopia. The increase in schooling caused by the reform is identified using both geographic variation in the intensity of its impact and temporal variation generated by the timing of the…
Descriptors: Access to Education, Elementary Education, Females, Labor Market
Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Rogers, Cathy – World Bank, 2020
This report considers the science of adult literacy acquisition, with the goal of identifying principles that may improve the effectiveness of adult literacy programs. We define literacy as a continuum, from emerging literacy, through improving literacy, to fluent literacy and we outline the factors that influence how far along that continuum an…
Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Literacy Education, Program Effectiveness, Skill Development
Outes-León, Ingo; Sánchez, Alan; Vakis, Renos – World Bank, 2020
This paper evaluates the academic impact of a growth-mindset intervention on students starting the secondary level in public schools in urban Peru. ¡Expande tu Mente! is a 90-minute school session aimed at instilling the notion that a person's own intelligence is malleable. Students in schools randomly assigned to treatment showed a small…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Urban Schools, Secondary School Students, Intervention
Bhatta, Saurav Dev; Rahman, Tashmina; Rahman, Md. Naibur; Sharma, Uttam; Adams, Lindsay – World Bank, 2020
This report reviews the landscape of the early childhood education (ECE) system in Bangladesh, focusing on the following key aspects related to the provision of ECE services: (a) access and equity, (b) quality, (c) governance and management, and (d) financing. It is based primarily on a desk review of existing documents and literature on ECE, and…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Early Childhood Education, Access to Education, Equal Education
Shmis, Tigran; Ustinova, Maria; Chugunov, Dmitry – World Bank, 2020
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] OECD School User Survey and the pilot "Trends in Mathematics and…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Environment, Teaching Methods, Space Utilization
Abdul-Hamid, Husein; Yassine, Mohamed – World Bank, 2020
Education is a source of national pride in Lebanon. When the general public was asked how the education system was performing, 76 percent of respondents had a positive opinion; and these satisfaction rates have been consistently high over the years. However, perception of education quality does not reflect the reality of the sector; and learning…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Policy, Politics of Education, Educational History
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