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Miller-Adams, Michelle; Hershbein, Brad J.; Bartik, Timothy J.; Timmeney, Bridget; Meyers, Amy; Adams, Lee – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2019
In 2018, the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research launched a major research initiative into place-based strategies for local prosperity. Place-based strategies are nothing new. For decades, cities, regions, and states have sought to increase the number of jobs available to residents, expand their tax base, and promote amenities and…
Descriptors: Community Development, Job Development, Economic Development, Economically Disadvantaged
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high…
Descriptors: Family Income, Bachelors Degrees, High School Graduates, Low Income Groups
Mahler, Patten Priestley – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
I use a detailed panel of data and a unique modeling specification to explore how public schoolteachers respond to the incentives embedded in North Carolina's retirement system. Like most public-sector retirement plans, North Carolina's teacher pension implicitly encourages teachers to continue working until they are eligible for their pension…
Descriptors: Retirement Benefits, Teacher Retirement, Public School Teachers, Incentives
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
In the past 15 years, four-year-olds' enrollment in state-funded pre-kindergarten in the United States has doubled, and advocates have pushed for further expansion. Although research has shown that pre-K programs can have important benefits, most existing studies have focused on small or state-specific programs that may not generalize to other…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Public Schools, Outcomes of Education, Standardized Tests
Miller-Adams, Michelle; Smith, Edward – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
We argue that place-based college scholarships, if designed intentionally and leveraged effectively, can foster local economic development. Since the introduction of the Kalamazoo Promise in 2005, a growing number of communities have applied the place-based approach to investments in human capital through the creation of college scholarship…
Descriptors: College Programs, Scholarships, Economic Development, Educational Policy
Miller-Adams, Michelle; Smith, Edward – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
Can place-based college scholarships stimulate local prosperity? Research suggests that Promise programs can indeed contribute to revitalizing economically distressed communities. We argue that these scholarship programs, when leveraged effectively, can spawn a host of community benefits and serve as catalysts for economic and educational…
Descriptors: College Programs, Scholarships, Enrollment, Economic Development
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
In the past 15 years, four-year-olds' enrollment in state-funded prekindergarten in the United States has more than doubled, with roughly one-third now enrolled. Although researchers have found that early childhood programs from decades ago had sizable benefits for students that lasted into adulthood, evidence from more recent (and less expensive)…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Preschool Children, Enrollment Trends, Program Evaluation
Stewart, Fran – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
This article highlights research in "The STEM Dilemma: Skills That Matter to Regions", which was recently published by the Upjohn Institute. The book looks at the regional workforce through the lens of the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) associated with regional occupations. This fine-grained approach uses data in the…
Descriptors: STEM Education, Economic Impact, Labor Force, Education Work Relationship
Denning, Jeffrey T. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2017
Higher education has experienced many changes since the 1970s, including an increase in the price of college, an increase in student employment during college, a decrease in college completion rates, and an increase in time to degree. This paper ties these trends together by causally linking changes in financial aid with time to degree and student…
Descriptors: College Students, Student Financial Aid, Correlation, Time to Degree
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J.; Lachowska, Marta – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2017
We estimate the effects on postsecondary education outcomes of the Kalamazoo Promise, a generous, place-based college scholarship. We identify Promise effects using difference-in-differences, comparing eligible to ineligible graduates before and after the Promise's initiation. According to our estimates, the Promise significantly increases college…
Descriptors: Postsecondary Education, Scholarships, Student Financial Aid, Program Effectiveness
Fillmore, Ian – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
The federal government has made a policy choice to share Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) information with colleges. This arrangement has been viewed as an administrative detail by students, parents, policymakers, and even economists. The results of this study demonstrate that this seemingly unimportant administrative detail is…
Descriptors: Student Financial Aid, Financial Aid Applicants, Paying for College, Federal Aid
Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…
Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Preschool Education, Equal Education, Public Schools
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
In this report, the authors have recently discovered that the increase in lifetime earnings from having a bachelor's degree, relative to having just a high school diploma, is much smaller for people who grew up poor than it is for people who grew up wealthier. This finding that has not been uncovered by any previous research, in part because until…
Descriptors: College Graduates, Socioeconomic Background, Family Income, Salary Wage Differentials
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
There has been little research on how family income background influences the career earnings boost from a college education. In new research, the authors reach a startling finding: the percentage boost to career earnings from a college education is much lower for individuals who grew up in lower-income families, compared to their peers who grew…
Descriptors: Family Income, Education Work Relationship, Higher Education, Socioeconomic Status
Fitzpatrick, Maria D. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
In this paper, I document evidence that intergovernmental incentives inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distort the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. This intergovernmental incentive stems from the fact that, in many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the compensation that…
Descriptors: Teacher Salaries, Retirement Benefits, Incentives, Public Schools
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