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Fillmore, Ian – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
The federal government has made a policy choice to share Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) information with colleges. This arrangement has been viewed as an administrative detail by students, parents, policymakers, and even economists. The results of this study demonstrate that this seemingly unimportant administrative detail is…
Descriptors: Student Financial Aid, Financial Aid Applicants, Paying for College, Federal Aid
Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…
Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Preschool Education, Equal Education, Public Schools
Fitzpatrick, Maria D. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
In this paper, I document evidence that intergovernmental incentives inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distort the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. This intergovernmental incentive stems from the fact that, in many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the compensation that…
Descriptors: Teacher Salaries, Retirement Benefits, Incentives, Public Schools
Gershenson, Seth – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…
Descriptors: Accountability, Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Teacher Attendance
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
Substantial research shows that high-quality early childhood education programs have a large economic payoff. This payoff is increased earnings for former child participants, increased earnings for parents, and increased earnings for all workers when average worker skills improve. A program package of universal pre-K, combined with child care and…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Early Childhood Education, Outcomes of Education, Wages
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Economic Development, Correlation, Early Childhood Education
Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
We use a regression-discontinuity design to study the effects of double blocking sixth-grade students in reading and mathematics on their achievement across three years of middle school. To identify the effect of the intervention, we use sharp cutoffs in the test scores used to assign students to double blocking. We find large, positive, and…
Descriptors: Middle School Students, Grade 6, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement
Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…
Descriptors: Incentives, Biotechnology, Industry, Innovation
Hershbein, Brad J.; Hollenbeck, Kevin – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
Despite tremendous recent interest in the subject of student debt by both researchers and policy makers, little is known about how the distribution of college graduate debt has been evolving and what factors can explain it. We use National Postsecondary Student Aid Study data from 1990 through 2008 to document the evolution of college graduate…
Descriptors: College Students, College Graduates, Debt (Financial), Loan Default
Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
Recent studies have found a large earnings premium to attending a more selective college, but the mechanisms underlying this premium have received little attention and remain unclear. In order to shed light on this question, I develop a multidimensional signaling model relying on college grades and selectivity that rationalizes students' choices…
Descriptors: Grade Point Average, Salaries, Selective Admission, Colleges
Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
While previous research has documented how the Kalamazoo Promise, the most prominent and generous place-based college scholarship program, increased enrollment in Kalamazoo Public Schools, this paper qualifies and quantifies the characteristics of students who were induced to enter--or stay--in the district. In particular, it analyzes the origins…
Descriptors: Public Schools, School Districts, Scholarships, Student Financial Aid
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
This paper uses a regression discontinuity model to examine the effects on kindergarten entrance assessments of the Kalamazoo County Ready 4s (KC Ready 4s) program, a half-day pre-K program for four-year-olds in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. The results are based on test scores and other characteristics of up to 220 children participating in KC…
Descriptors: Public Schools, School Districts, Enrollment Trends, Student Characteristics
Addonizio, Michael F.; Kearney, C. Philip – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2012
During the last 20 years, the United States has experienced more attempts at education reform than at any other time in its history. Efforts to reform financing, the assessment of student performance, accountability and equity, and school choice have all been implemented--with varying levels of success. Michael F. Addonizio and C. Philip Kearney…
Descriptors: Educational Change, Educational Policy, Educational Finance, Finance Reform
Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2012
In order to study whether college scholarships can be an effective tool in raising students' performance in secondary school, we use one aspect of the Kalamazoo Promise that resembles a quasi-experiment. The surprise announcement of the scholarship created a large change in expected college tuition costs that varied across different groups of…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Student Characteristics, Credits, Grade Point Average
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2011
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…
Descriptors: Economic Development, Early Childhood Education, Young Children, Cost Effectiveness
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