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Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document a startling empirical pattern: the career earnings premium from a four-year college degree (relative to a high school diploma) for persons from low-income backgrounds is considerably less than it is for those from higher-income backgrounds. For individuals whose family income in high…
Descriptors: Family Income, Bachelors Degrees, High School Graduates, Low Income Groups
Mahler, Patten Priestley – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
I use a detailed panel of data and a unique modeling specification to explore how public schoolteachers respond to the incentives embedded in North Carolina's retirement system. Like most public-sector retirement plans, North Carolina's teacher pension implicitly encourages teachers to continue working until they are eligible for their pension…
Descriptors: Retirement Benefits, Teacher Retirement, Public School Teachers, Incentives
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2018
In the past 15 years, four-year-olds' enrollment in state-funded pre-kindergarten in the United States has doubled, and advocates have pushed for further expansion. Although research has shown that pre-K programs can have important benefits, most existing studies have focused on small or state-specific programs that may not generalize to other…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Public Schools, Outcomes of Education, Standardized Tests
Denning, Jeffrey T. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2017
Higher education has experienced many changes since the 1970s, including an increase in the price of college, an increase in student employment during college, a decrease in college completion rates, and an increase in time to degree. This paper ties these trends together by causally linking changes in financial aid with time to degree and student…
Descriptors: College Students, Student Financial Aid, Correlation, Time to Degree
Bartik, Timothy J.; Hershbein, Brad J.; Lachowska, Marta – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2017
We estimate the effects on postsecondary education outcomes of the Kalamazoo Promise, a generous, place-based college scholarship. We identify Promise effects using difference-in-differences, comparing eligible to ineligible graduates before and after the Promise's initiation. According to our estimates, the Promise significantly increases college…
Descriptors: Postsecondary Education, Scholarships, Student Financial Aid, Program Effectiveness
Fillmore, Ian – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
The federal government has made a policy choice to share Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) information with colleges. This arrangement has been viewed as an administrative detail by students, parents, policymakers, and even economists. The results of this study demonstrate that this seemingly unimportant administrative detail is…
Descriptors: Student Financial Aid, Financial Aid Applicants, Paying for College, Federal Aid
Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2016
In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…
Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Preschool Education, Equal Education, Public Schools
Fitzpatrick, Maria D. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
In this paper, I document evidence that intergovernmental incentives inherent in public sector defined benefit pension systems distort the amount and timing of income for public school teachers. This intergovernmental incentive stems from the fact that, in many states, local school districts are responsible for setting the compensation that…
Descriptors: Teacher Salaries, Retirement Benefits, Incentives, Public Schools
Gershenson, Seth – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…
Descriptors: Accountability, Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Teacher Attendance
Hollenbeck, Kevin; Bartik, Timothy J.; Eberts, Randall W.; Hershbein, Brad J.; Miller-Adams, Michelle – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
Michigan has a problem. By several measures, the achievement of students attending its K-12 educational system has not kept pace with other states. Although Michigan's student achievement has improved over the past decade, the improvement has been modest, and achievement in many other states has easily surpassed that in Michigan. Furthermore,…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Educational Quality, Educational Finance, Academic Achievement
Hershbein, Brad J.; Hollenbeck, Kevin – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015
The Washington legislature has requested the production of a forecast of net job openings for occupations that require higher education and training and the number of individuals who will have the education and training that is required to fill the openings. State agencies have produced to date four studies to meet the legislative mandate. All…
Descriptors: Supply and Demand, Higher Education, Employment Projections, Demand Occupations
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
Substantial research shows that high-quality early childhood education programs have a large economic payoff. This payoff is increased earnings for former child participants, increased earnings for parents, and increased earnings for all workers when average worker skills improve. A program package of universal pre-K, combined with child care and…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Early Childhood Education, Outcomes of Education, Wages
Bartik, Timothy J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…
Descriptors: Preschool Education, Economic Development, Correlation, Early Childhood Education
Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014
We use a regression-discontinuity design to study the effects of double blocking sixth-grade students in reading and mathematics on their achievement across three years of middle school. To identify the effect of the intervention, we use sharp cutoffs in the test scores used to assign students to double blocking. We find large, positive, and…
Descriptors: Middle School Students, Grade 6, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement
Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J. – W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2013
We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…
Descriptors: Incentives, Biotechnology, Industry, Innovation
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