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Blagg, Kristin; Gutierrez, Emily; Lee, Victoria – Urban Institute, 2021
With declines in enrollment and attendance, increases in student poverty, and potential reductions in state revenue, policymakers are facing a perfect storm of uncertainty in apportioning K-12 education funding. State policymakers typically use prior-year enrollment numbers or average daily attendance to allocate funding proportional to the number…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment
Baum, Sandy; Blagg, Kristin; Rainer, Macy – Urban Institute, 2021
New Jersey's state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state's major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors,…
Descriptors: State Aid, Tuition Grants, Student Financial Aid, Need Analysis (Student Financial Aid)
Baum, Sandy; Blagg, Kristin – Urban Institute, 2021
Texas state grant aid programs provide significant support to many low- and moderate-income state residents pursuing postsecondary education. Only a small share of eligible students receives state grants, however, and students often cannot predict whether they will receive aid, especially if they apply to different types of institutions.…
Descriptors: State Aid, Grants, State Programs, Student Financial Aid
Kuehn, Daniel; Marotta, John; Arabandi, Bhavani; Katz, Batia – Urban Institute, 2021
Inclusive apprenticeship programs--those that support and are designed to be inclusive of apprentices with disabilities--hold promise for improving long-term employment outcomes for participants. However, little is known about the prevalence and operations of inclusive apprenticeship programs. This report summarizes current information on…
Descriptors: Inclusion, Apprenticeships, Students with Disabilities, Partnerships in Education
Monarrez, Tomas; Schonholzer, David; Chien, Carina; Rainer, Macy – Urban Institute, 2021
School segregation is one of the most enduring inequities in US public education, reinforcing racial and ethnic gaps in academic and socioeconomic outcomes. School boundaries, whether between districts or between schools within a district, often help perpetuate school segregation in otherwise racially and ethnically diverse cities and…
Descriptors: Metropolitan Areas, School Segregation, Equal Education, Attendance Patterns
Blagg, Kristin; Blom, Erica; Kelchen, Robert; Chien, Carina – Urban Institute, 2021
Policymakers have expressed increased interest in program-level higher education accountability measures as a supplement to, or in place of, institution-level metrics. But it is unclear what these measures should look like. In this report, we assess the ways program-level data could be developed to facilitate federal accountability. Evidence shows…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Accountability, Program Evaluation, Evaluation Methods
Blagg, Kristin; Blom, Erica; Kelchen, Robert; Chien, Carina – Urban Institute, 2021
Evidence shows that what students study matters as much as, if not more than, where they study. Program-level measures can provide important data on student outcomes, which will allow policymakers to hold institutions and programs that receive federal funding accountable. This fact sheet highlights some of the most frequently discussed measures…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Accountability, Federal Aid, Educational Finance
Blagg, Kristin; Gutierrez, Emily; Lee, Victoria – Urban Institute, 2021
With declines in enrollment and attendance, increases in student poverty, and potential reductions in state revenue, policymakers are facing a perfect storm of uncertainty in apportioning K-12 education funding. State policymakers typically use prior-year enrollment numbers or average daily attendance to allocate funding proportional to the number…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Funding Formulas, State Aid, Educational Equity (Finance)
Hamilton, Stephen F. – Urban Institute, 2021
Registered Apprenticeship for young people is an earn-and-learn program for women and men in their late teens and early twenties. It combines academics with paid work experience across many sectors. An essential part of the apprenticeship experience is to be paired with a mentor, who supports, advises, and instructs an apprentice(s) on the job.…
Descriptors: Mentors, Apprenticeships, Youth Programs, Late Adolescents
Jacoby, Jennifer Wallace – Urban Institute, 2021
Assistant teachers play an important role in Head Start and other early care and education (ECE) programs. This study found that assistant teachers contribute to classroom quality in the program's day-to-day implementation. Thirty-eight assistant-lead teaching teams from Head Start preschool classrooms across 14 Head Start centers within the…
Descriptors: Teacher Aides, Preschool Education, Disadvantaged Youth, Diversity (Faculty)
Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela – Urban Institute, 2021
The ECE workforce experiences high levels of stress, partly because they have low incomes and limited access to professional and personal supports for their own well-being. In addition, the ECE workforce experiences sociopolitical stressors (i.e., stressors that arise from political legislation or from political leaders' threatening rhetoric).…
Descriptors: Child Care, Child Caregivers, Stress Variables, Early Childhood Education
Gottfried, Michael; Kirksey, J. Jacob; Hutt, Ethan – Urban Institute, 2021
Children in kindergarten and first grade are missing more school than at any other point during the elementary years. Some research has examined schoolwide policies and practices that might help reduce absences, but limited research has focused on the role of teachers. This is the first known study to examine the role teacher preparation programs…
Descriptors: Beginning Teachers, Kindergarten, Grade 1, Preschool Teachers
Adams, Gina; Ewen, Danielle; Luetmer, Grace – Urban Institute, 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented, urgent challenges for the child care and early education workforce. Though the workforce has always been fragile, new stressors presented over the past year have highlighted fundamental structural problems in the system, including the inequities facing Black, Latina, and Native American child care…
Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Early Childhood Teachers, Child Caregivers, State Policy
Schilder, Diane; Sandstrom, Heather – Urban Institute, 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented public health emergency that crippled the child care market in the United States. This crisis highlighted the essential role of the early care and education (ECE) workforce in the nation's economic stability and growth. The pandemic's disproportionate effect on Black, Hispanic, and Native American…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Early Childhood Education, Child Care
Sandstrom, Heather; Schilder, Diane – Urban Institute, 2021
In the years immediately preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, policymakers, researchers, and philanthropists recognized the pressing need to build and strengthen the early care and education (ECE) workforce. Evidence documenting the relationship between early childhood educator professional preparation and children's outcomes spurred a growing…
Descriptors: Teacher Competencies, Faculty Development, Teacher Education, Educational Quality
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