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Blom, Erica; Baker, Dominique – Urban Institute, 2022
College students' experiences vary significantly by race and ethnicity. Often, institutions prioritize structuring their undergraduate experience to cater to white students' needs and desires, such as by hiring predominantly white instructors, and creating classroom learning environments that privilege white students. Though scholars researching…
Descriptors: College Students, Racial Differences, Ethnicity, Student Satisfaction
Baum, Sandy; Blom, Erica; Cohn, Jason – Urban Institute, 2022
All students deserve to attend programs and institutions that meet high quality standards. But different program goals, investments of time, and eligibility criteria make it difficult to set specific standards that will apply equally well to all types of programs and institutions. This report sets out principles for developing an accountability…
Descriptors: Eligibility, Accountability, Outcomes of Education, Risk
Domina, Thurston; Hashim, Ayesha; Kearney, Caitlin; Pham, Lam; Smith, Cole – Urban Institute, 2022
Evidence suggests that the rate of academic achievement fell by as much as half during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, as demonstrated in this report using third-grade math test score data from North Carolina public schools, the pandemic's educational consequences vary considerably from school to school and district to district. The pandemic…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Mathematics Achievement, Grade 3
Baum, Sandy; Blom, Erica; Cohn, Jason – Urban Institute, 2022
This brief examines the impact of using a system based on multiple metrics that requires institutions to pass three out of four thresholds for student loan default, student loan repayment, program completion, and postcollege earnings. Currently, a very high loan default rate is the only student outcome that disqualifies institutions from the…
Descriptors: Accountability, Student Loan Programs, Loan Default, Federal Aid
Scott-Clayton, Judith; Libassi, C. J.; Sparks, Daniel – Urban Institute, 2022
After decades of frustration with increasingly complex college financial aid policies, a nationwide shift toward "free college" programs has gained momentum. New York State joined the free college movement in 2017, when Governor Andrew Cuomo announced his goal to make public higher education tuition-free for most students during his…
Descriptors: Community Colleges, Two Year College Students, Undergraduate Students, Paying for College
Blagg, Kristin; Lukes, Marguerite – Urban Institute, 2022
More than a quarter of US children have at least one immigrant parent, but researchers and policymakers often do not have adequate data on these children's experiences in school, with far-reaching implications for instruction, student support services, and policy. Proxy factors that are reported by school--such as being designated as an English…
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Immigrants, Educational Policy, Educational Experience
Baum, Sandy; Delisle, Jason – Urban Institute, 2022
Much of the policy debate emerging from concerns over student debt has focused on the structure and operation of income-driven repayment (IDR). As the number of available IDR plans and the share of borrowers enrolling in these plans has increased, the system has become more confusing and difficult to navigate. IDR has not prevented default…
Descriptors: Income, Loan Repayment, Paying for College, Student Loan Programs
Baum, Sandy; Delisle, Jason – Urban Institute, 2022
The federal government now offers a multitude of complicated income-driven repayment (IDR) plans that are difficult to understand, enroll in, and stay in. Many students who would benefit from IDR do not enroll, and others will have large amounts of debt forgiven despite earning high wages. The current problems with IDR are not an indictment of the…
Descriptors: Income, Student Financial Aid, Loan Repayment, Debt (Financial)
Diemer, Andrew; Park, Aaron – Urban Institute, 2022
The pandemic has heightened awareness of the gaps in education quality between the nation's most vulnerable students and most well-off students. And the reopening decisions school districts made in the 2020-21 school year may have both short- and long-term impacts on the academic achievement of the most vulnerable students. In addition to racial…
Descriptors: Pandemics, COVID-19, School Closing, Rural Schools
Hernandez-Lepe, Fernando; Sandstrom, Heather; Casas, Michelle; Greenberg, Erica – Urban Institute, 2022
This brief summarizes early educators' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including changes in employment and wages, supports they received, and challenges they faced. The findings come from a survey of early educators working in licensed child care facilities in the District of Columbia in early 2021. The survey is part of the larger DC…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Employment Level, Wages
Blagg, Kristin – Urban Institute, 2022
Enrollment in American graduate degree programs is increasing, even as undergraduate enrollment declines continue in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. With rising numbers of graduate awards, there has been increased attention on understanding the value of these degrees, especially master's degrees. With more workers attaining higher credentials,…
Descriptors: Graduate Study, Enrollment Trends, Masters Degrees, Doctoral Degrees
Chingos, Matthew – Urban Institute, 2022
Virginia governor Glenn Youngkin and his administration want to raise the bar for students to pass the state's standardized tests "from the lowest in the nation to the highest in the nation" by next spring. His goal is to close the "honesty gap" between the 79 percent of Virginia students who pass the state's tests and the 39…
Descriptors: Expectation, Achievement Tests, Scores, Standardized Tests
Delisle, Jason; Cohn, Jason – Urban Institute, 2022
The Biden administration is developing regulations around gainful employment (GE) that would protect students from career-oriented college programs that don't adequately serve their students. A draft GE rule released earlier this year would require that graduates of certificate programs at public and nonprofit colleges and nearly all programs at…
Descriptors: Employment Level, Salaries, College Graduates, Education Work Relationship
Gutierrez, Emily; Blagg, Kristin; Chingos, Matthew M. – Urban Institute, 2022
Most researchers and policymakers rely on the share of students eligible for free and reduced-price meals when describing student socioeconomic background in schools. But shares of students receiving free and reduced-price meals, and other measures related to the distribution of school meals, vary by state and across time because of changes in…
Descriptors: Poverty, Low Income Students, Urban Schools, Measurement Techniques
Gutierrez, Emily; Blagg, Kristin; Chingos, Matthew M. – Urban Institute, 2022
The share of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch (FRPL) via meal applications is often used as a proxy for the share of students from low-income households at a school. But the recent adoption of universal meal programs, such as the Community Eligibility Provision, make it more difficult to consistently measure student poverty…
Descriptors: Poverty, Low Income Students, Urban Schools, Measurement Techniques
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