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Johnston, Jamie; Ksoll, Christopher – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
In lower- and middle-income countries, including Ghana, students in rural areas dramatically underperform their urban peers. Rural schools struggle to attract and retain professionally trained teachers (GES 2012; World Bank 2012). We explore one potential solution to the problem of teacher recruitment: distance instruction. Through a cluster…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Rural Schools, Elementary Schools, Educational Technology
Shores, Kenneth; Steinberg, Matthew P. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
The Great Recession was the most severe economic downturn in the United States since the Great Depression. Using newly available population-level achievement data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), we estimate the impact of the Great Recession on the math and English language arts (ELA) achievement of all grade 3-8 students in the…
Descriptors: Economic Impact, Academic Achievement, Language Arts, Mathematics Achievement
Rochmes, Jane; Penner, Emily; Loeb, Susanna – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
Despite the multifaceted causes of educational disparities, schools' responsibility for reducing inequality undergirds American ideals. Educators operate as street-level bureaucrats to accomplish this equalizing work. Surprisingly, we know little about how teachers think about inequality or enact strategies to combat it, even though their…
Descriptors: Equal Education, Social Justice, Teacher Surveys, Elementary Secondary Education
Bassok, Daphna; Dee, Thomas S.; Latham, Scott – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
In an effort to enhance the quality of early childhood education (ECE) at scale, nearly all U.S. states have recently adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS). These accountability systems give providers and parents information on program quality and create both reputational and financial incentives for program improvement. However,…
Descriptors: Accountability, Early Childhood Education, Quality Control, Program Effectiveness
Bonilla, Sade; Dee, Thomas – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
Under waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal government required states to identify schools where targeted subgroups of students have the lowest achievement and to implement reforms in these "Focus Schools." In this study, we examine the Focus School reforms in the state of Kentucky. The reforms in this state are…
Descriptors: Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Educational Change, Change Strategies
Dee, Thomas; Dizon-Ross, Elise – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms…
Descriptors: Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Accountability, Achievement Gap
Fricke, Hans; Lechner, Michael; Steinmayr, Andreas – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
What is the role of physical activity in the process of human capital accumulation? Brain research provides growing evidence of the importance of physical activity for various aspects of cognitive functions. An increasingly sedentary lifestyle could thus be not only harmful to population health, but also disrupt human capital accumulation. This…
Descriptors: Physical Activities, Physical Activity Level, Academic Achievement, Recreational Activities
Liu, Jing; Loeb, Susanna – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
Both anecdotal and systematic evidence points to the importance of teachers for students' long-run success. Previous research on effective teachers has focused almost exclusively on student test score gains in math and reading. For this study we are able to link middle and high school teachers to the class-attendance of students in their…
Descriptors: Secondary School Teachers, Teacher Effectiveness, Attendance Patterns, Secondary School Students
Chmielewski, Anna K. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
The existence of a "socioeconomic achievement gap"--a disparity in academic achievement between students from high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds--is well-known in educational research. The SES achievement gap has been documented across a wide range of countries. What is unknown in most countries is whether the SES…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Achievement Gap, Achievement Tests, Foreign Countries
Fahle, Erin M.; Reardon, Sean F. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
This paper provides the first population-based evidence on how much standardized test scores vary among public school districts within each state and how segregation explains that variation. Using roughly 300 million standardized test score records in math and ELA for grades 3 through 8 from every U.S. public school district during the 2008-09 to…
Descriptors: Standardized Tests, Scores, Comparative Analysis, Public Schools
Murnane, Richard J.; Reardon, Sean F. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
We use data from multiple national surveys to describe trends in private elementary school enrollment by family income from 1968-2013. We note several important trends. First, the private school enrollment rate of middle-income families declined substantially over the last five decades, while that of high-income families remained quite stable.…
Descriptors: Enrollment Trends, Trend Analysis, Private Schools, Family Income
Dee, T.; Gershenson, S. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
The underrepresentation of women and racial and ethnic minorities in computer science (CS) and other fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is a serious impediment to technological innovation as well as an affront to fundamental notions of fairness and equity. These gaps emerge in the early grades and tend to persist, if not…
Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Bias, Interdisciplinary Approach, Literature Reviews
Doss, Christopher; Fahle, Erin M.; Loeb, Susanna; York, Benjamin N. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
Recent studies show that texting-based interventions can produce educational benefits in children across a range of ages. We study the effects of a text-based program for kindergarten parents, distinguishing a general program from one that adds differentiation and personalization based on the child's developmental level. Children in the…
Descriptors: Kindergarten, Intervention, Educational Benefits, Child Development
Reardon, Sean F.; Kalogrides, Demetra; Shores, Ken – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
We estimate racial/ethnic achievement gaps in several hundred metropolitan areas and several thousand school districts in the United States using the results of roughly 200 million standardized math and reading tests administered to public school students from 2009-2013. We show that achievement gaps vary substantially, ranging from nearly 0 in…
Descriptors: Racial Differences, Achievement Gap, Scores, Standardized Tests
Reardon, Sean F.; Kalogrides, Demetra; Ho, Andrew D. – Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis, 2017
There is no comprehensive database of U.S. district-level test scores that is comparable across states. We describe and evaluate a method for constructing such a database. First, we estimate linear, reliability-adjusted linking transformations from state test score scales to the scale of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). We…
Descriptors: School Districts, Scores, Statistical Distributions, Database Design
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