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Ahmadi Shirazi, Masoumeh – SAGE Open, 2019
Threats to construct validity should be reduced to a minimum. If true, sources of bias, namely raters, items, tests as well as gender, age, race, language background, culture, and socio-economic status need to be spotted and removed. This study investigates raters' experience, language background, and the choice of essay prompt as potential…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Language Tests, Test Bias, Essay Tests