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Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Catherine; Fergus, Edward; King Thorius, Kathleen A. – Review of Research in Education, 2017
In the review, we examine what is known about disproportionality with the intention of informing the direction of policy and practice remedies. We outline the definition, contours, and characteristics of disproportionality and examine some of the prevailing explanations as to why the issue persists. We then pivot the review to consider how policy,…
Descriptors: Equal Education, Special Education, Disproportionate Representation, Intervention
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Thurlow, Martha L.; Kopriva, Rebecca J. – Review of Research in Education, 2015
The purpose of this chapter is to review what has happened, and what is likely to happen, as accessibility and accommodations research and practice for content assessments are advanced to ensure the appropriate inclusion and validity of assessment results for English learners (ELs) and students with disabilities. A description of accommodations…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Disabilities, Academic Accommodations (Disabilities), Testing Accommodations
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Wiliam, Dylan – Review of Research in Education, 2010
The idea that validity should be considered a property of inferences, rather than of assessments, has developed slowly over the past century. In early writings about the validity of educational assessments, validity was defined as a property of an assessment. The most common definition was that an assessment was valid to the extent that it…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Validity, Inferences, Construct Validity