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Karabatsos, George; Talbott, Elizabeth; Walker, Stephen G. – Research Synthesis Methods, 2015
In a meta-analysis, it is important to specify a model that adequately describes the effect-size distribution of the underlying population of studies. The conventional normal fixed-effect and normal random-effects models assume a normal effect-size population distribution, conditionally on parameters and covariates. For estimating the mean overall…
Descriptors: Bayesian Statistics, Meta Analysis, Prediction, Nonparametric Statistics
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Schild, Anne H. E.; Voracek, Martin – Research Synthesis Methods, 2015
Research has shown that forest plots are a gold standard in the visualization of meta-analytic results. However, research on the general interpretation of forest plots and the role of researchers' meta-analysis experience and field of study is still unavailable. Additionally, the traditional display of effect sizes, confidence intervals, and…
Descriptors: Graphs, Visualization, Meta Analysis, Data Interpretation
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Ades, A. E.; Lu, Guobing; Dias, Sofia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Kounali, Daphne – Research Synthesis Methods, 2015
Objective: Trials often may report several similar outcomes measured on different test instruments. We explored a method for synthesising treatment effect information both within and between trials and for reporting treatment effects on a common scale as an alternative to standardisation Study design: We applied a procedure that simultaneously…
Descriptors: Research Methodology, Evaluation Methods, Metabolism, Accuracy
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Rosenthal, Robert – Research Synthesis Methods, 2015
In this interview, we discuss my early uses of meta-analytic procedures, first to combine "p"-values and then to combine effect sizes as well. My interest in quantifying the magnitude and the statistical significance of the effect of interpersonal expectations probably grew out of the following: (1) a long-held interest in the concept of…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Probability, Statistical Significance, Effect Size
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Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Tipton, Elizabeth – Research Synthesis Methods, 2014
Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding…
Descriptors: Robustness (Statistics), Effect Size, Computer Software, Tutorial Programs
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Thompson, Christopher Glen; Becker, Betsy Jane – Research Synthesis Methods, 2014
A common assumption in meta-analysis is that effect sizes are independent. When correlated effect sizes are analyzed using traditional univariate techniques, this assumption is violated. This research assesses the impact of dependence arising from treatment-control studies with multiple endpoints on homogeneity measures "Q" and…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Effect Size, Correlation, Experimental Groups
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Robertson, Clare; Ramsay, Craig; Gurung, Tara; Mowatt, Graham; Pickard, Robert; Sharma, Pawana – Research Synthesis Methods, 2014
We describe our experience of using a modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. Objectives: (1) To assess time to complete RoB assessment; (2) To assess inter-rater agreement; and (3) To explore the association between RoB and treatment effect size. Methods: Cochrane risk of…
Descriptors: Risk, Randomized Controlled Trials, Research Design, Comparative Analysis
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Thomson, Hilary J.; Thomas, Sian – Research Synthesis Methods, 2013
Visual display of reported impacts is a valuable aid to both reviewers and readers of systematic reviews. Forest plots are routinely prepared to report standardised effect sizes, but where standardised effect sizes are not available for all included studies a forest plot may misrepresent the available evidence. Tabulated data summaries to…
Descriptors: Graphs, Effect Size, Statistical Data, Housing
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Tipton, Elizabeth – Research Synthesis Methods, 2013
Dependent effect size estimates are a common problem in meta-analysis. Recently, a robust variance estimation method was introduced that can be used whenever effect sizes in a meta-analysis are not independent. This problem arises, for example, when effect sizes are nested or when multiple measures are collected on the same individuals. In this…
Descriptors: Robustness (Statistics), Meta Analysis, Regression (Statistics), Effect Size
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Hedges, Larry V.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Shadish, William R. – Research Synthesis Methods, 2013
Single-case designs are a class of research methods for evaluating treatment effects by measuring outcomes repeatedly over time while systematically introducing different condition (e.g., treatment and control) to the same individual. The designs are used across fields such as behavior analysis, clinical psychology, special education, and…
Descriptors: Effect Size, Research Design, Research Methodology, Behavioral Science Research
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Yu, Winifred W.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A. – Research Synthesis Methods, 2013
The objective of this study is to empirically compare alternative meta-analytic methods for combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies. We identified meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between a single nutrient and a dichotomous outcome. For each topic, we performed meta-analyses of odds ratios…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Meta Analysis, Research Methodology, Nutrition
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Shuster, Jonathan J.; Neu, Josef – Research Synthesis Methods, 2013
Three recent papers have provided sequential methods for meta-analysis of two-treatment randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an alternate approach that has three desirable features. First, when carried out prospectively (i.e., we only have the results up to the time of our current analysis), we do not require knowledge of the…
Descriptors: Meta Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trials, Infants, Effect Size