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Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 2016
In this article Paul Nation responds to Thomas Cobb's "Numbers or Numerology? A Response to Nation (2014) and McQuillan (2016)" (EJ1117024). Nation begins by clarifying his own position on vocabulary learning and goes on to highlight points made in Cobb's article with which he is in agreement, while drawing from his 2014 article,…
Descriptors: Vocabulary, Word Study Skills, Time Factors (Learning), Learner Engagement
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Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 2015
Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…
Descriptors: Vocabulary Development, Second Language Learning, Reading Habits, Reading Instruction
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Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 2014
This study looks at how much input is needed to gain enough repetition of the 1st 9,000 words of English for learning to occur. It uses corpora of various sizes and composition to see how many tokens of input would be needed to gain at least twelve repetitions and to meet most of the words at eight of the nine 1000 word family levels. Corpus sizes…
Descriptors: Second Language Learning, Linguistic Input, English (Second Language), Novels
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Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 2003
Describes two studies of technical vocabulary, one using an anatomy text and the other an applied linguistics text. Technical vocabulary was found by rating words in the texts on a four-step scale. Found that technical vocabulary made up a very substantial proportion of both the different words and the running words in texts. (Author/VWL)
Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, English for Special Purposes, Reading Comprehension, Second Language Instruction
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Nation, Paul; Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang – Reading in a Foreign Language, 1999
Examines the potential for vocabulary learning using a corpus of 42 grade readers from one series of graded readers (seven at each of six levels in the series). It was found that in order to have 95% coverage of the running words at a level in the series, it was necessary to already know the vocabulary of the current level in the scheme.…
Descriptors: Basal Reading, Computer Software, English (Second Language), Instructional Materials
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Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 2000
Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Multiple Choice Tests, Reading Comprehension, Recall (Psychology)
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Kyongho, Hwang; Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 1989
Comparison of the effectiveness of two story selection processes for English-as-a-Second-Language learners indicated that selecting "running" stories (a story and its follow-up articles) provided more repetition of low frequency words, better reduced vocabulary load, and provided better conditions for vocabulary acquisition than did selecting…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, English (Second Language), Korean, Newspapers
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Hirsh, David; Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 1992
The types of vocabulary in three short novels were analyzed to determine the text coverage of the most frequent 2,000 words of English, and the vocabulary needed to gain 97-98% coverage of the running words in each text. It was found that a 5,000-word vocabulary was necessary for adequate coverage in pleasure reading. (Contains nine references.)…
Descriptors: Decoding (Reading), Foreign Countries, Language Skills, Novels
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Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul – Reading in a Foreign Language, 1988
A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…
Descriptors: Instructional Effectiveness, Readability Formulas, Reading Achievement, Reading Materials