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ERIC Number: EJ890799
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010
Pages: 21
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0034-0553
Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity
Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather
Reading Research Quarterly, v45 n3 p270-291 Jul-Sep 2010
This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine construct, criterion, and consequential validity. Oral reading data and standardized comprehension test scores were analyzed for students in grades 2, 4, and 6. Our results indicate that assessments designed to include multiple indicators of oral reading fluency provided a finer-grained understanding of oral reading fluency and fluency assessment, and a stronger predictor of general comprehension. Comparisons across grade levels also revealed developmental differences in the relation between oral reading fluency and comprehension, and the relative contributions of oral fluency indicators to comprehension. When commonly used benchmarks were applied to wcpm scores to identify students at risk of reading difficulty, both false positives and false negatives were found. This study raises issues regarding the alignment of oral reading fluency definitions and assessment, and the widespread use of wcpm measures and benchmarks to identify students at risk of reading difficulty and to plan instruction. (Contains 4 figures and 7 tables.)
International Reading Association. 800 Barksdale Road, P.O. Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714-8139. Tel: 800-336-7323; Fax: 302-731-1057; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Iowa Tests of Basic Skills; National Assessment of Educational Progress