NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Back to results
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ955059
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0034-0510
Silent Reading Manifestations of Adolescent Struggling Readers
Gilliam, Brenda K.; Dykes, Frank; Gerla, Jacqueline K.; Wright, Gary L.
Reading Improvement, v48 n3 p118-127 Fall 2011
The purpose of this study was to explore the link between speech and reading to oneself among struggling readers in secondary schools. The researchers examined the extent to which adolescent struggling readers used various vocal and subvocal behaviors, such as lip movement, mumbling, whispering, and oral reading during individual reading activities. The target population was students in middle and high school identified as struggling with reading skills. The treatment was the individual administration of a norm-referenced measure of reading accompanied by direct observations. Results revealed that fewer than half of the students read silently without lip movement or vocalization. Half of the struggling readers primarily subvocalized, reading silently or moving their lips with no sound, while forty-two percent of the students changed their manifested behaviors as they read to themselves. Vocal and subvocal reading patterns were similar across genders. The findings suggest that many struggling adolescent readers have not fully developed the skill to read silently. (Contains 1 figure and 3 tables.)
Project Innovation, Inc. P.O. Box 8508 Spring Hill Station, Mobile, AL 36689-0508. Tel: 251-343-1878; Fax: 251-343-1878; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: High Schools; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Texas
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement