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Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas – Quality of Higher Education, 2012
Various texts related to education policy and education research have recently started using two conjugate concepts "competency" and "competence". These terms are sometimes treated as synonyms of a single concept; however, in other cases they are separated and used as two terms of different educational concepts. English also…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Competence, Translation, Definitions
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Bjornavold, Jens – Quality of Higher Education, 2009
This article addresses the gradual introduction of arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe. While the debate on how to identify, assess and recognise learning achievements acquired outside formal education and training institutions has been going on for several decades, we can now observe that these approaches are…
Descriptors: Informal Education, Foreign Countries, Nonformal Education, Educational Development