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Joe, J. Richelle; Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Oh, Seungbin – Professional Counselor, 2019
In this phenomenological study, the authors explored the lived experiences of 19 African American mothers raising boys and young men to understand how media exposure to community and state violence connects to the physical and mental health of these mothers. Analysis of semi-structured individual interviews revealed six themes: psychological…
Descriptors: African Americans, Mothers, Child Rearing, Sons
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Crumb, Loni; Haskins, Natoya; Brown, Shanita – Professional Counselor, 2019
This phenomenological study explored the experiences of 15 professional counselors who work with clients living in impoverished communities in rural America. Researchers used individual semi-structured interviews to gather data and identified four themes that represented the counselors' experiences using the Multicultural and Social Justice…
Descriptors: Poverty Areas, Social Justice, Advocacy, Mental Health
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Lee, Kristi A.; Kelley-Petersen, Daniel J. – Professional Counselor, 2018
The focus on human development is foundational to the field of counseling, with its importance codified in guiding documents and frameworks, such as the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics (2014). Many developmental theories have been established using single-gender or single-culture groups, yet they claim universal application to all…
Descriptors: Counseling Techniques, Service Learning, Social Justice, Counselor Training