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ERIC Number: EJ1217349
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1045-988X
Establishing Empirical Benchmarks for Disciplinary Infractions in Alternative School Settings: Findings from a National Sample
Frank, Jennifer L.
Preventing School Failure, v63 n3 p242-253 2019
The purpose of this study was to establish empirical benchmarks for the rate of student discipline in public alternative schools in the United States and to identify normative rates of disciplinary infractions across different grade levels, gender, and racial groups. Participants included 15,846 students attending 108 alternative schools in 73 school districts across 22 states. Results revealed that gender and race-based disparities in discipline are also present in alternative school settings but at much lower levels than observed in regular education settings. Although daily referral rates are higher on average, the proportion of students considered high risk was substantially lower in alternative middle and high schools compared with nonalternative settings. Schoolwide disciplinary referral rates and benchmark averages disaggregated by grade level, race, and gender are reported.
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 530 Walnut Street Suite 850, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Tel: 215-625-8900; Fax: 215-207-0050; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education; High Schools; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A