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Gould, Elizabeth – Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2012
It is difficult to overstate music's persistent and uneasy relationship with homosexuality in Western society. Associated with femininity for centuries, particularly in North America, participation in music has been believed to emasculate and thus homosexualize men and boys. The linking of music to women and emotion (as opposed to men and reason)…
Descriptors: Music Education, Music, Homosexuality, Social Bias
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Howe, Sondra Wieland – Philosophy of Music Education Review, 2009
Women music educators in the USA have been active in public and private schools, churches, and community organizations. In the nineteenth century, Julia E. Crane founded the Crane Institute of Music, the first institution to train music supervisors; and women developed kindergarten programs throughout the US. In the "private sphere," women taught…
Descriptors: Career Choice, Private Schools, Music Education, Music