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Ezeamama, Amara E.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Tuke, Robert; Pad, Ricki Lauren; Boivin, Michael J.; Musoke, Philippa M.; Giordani, Bruno; Sikorskii, Alla – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Caregiver's and child's self-reported quality of life (QOL) was defined using standardized questionnaires in a sample (N = 277) of 6-10 years old HIV-infected, HIV-exposed uninfected, and HIV-unexposed uninfected children from Uganda. Psychosocial stress (acute stress and cumulative lifetime adversity) and physiologic stress (dysregulations across…
Descriptors: Stress Variables, Stress Management, Quality of Life, Children
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Garnett, Geoffrey Peter – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has, over the last four decades, infected millions of young women and their children. Interventions developed in parallel with the spread of the virus have been able to reduce rates of vertical transmission from mother to child. The impact of HIV in children can be direct in children living with HIV (CLHIV) and…
Descriptors: Pandemics, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Children, Incidence
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Penner, Francesca; Sharp, Carla; Marais, Lochner; Shohet, Cilly; Givon, Deborah; Boivin, Michael – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
The goal of this paper was to conduct a review of studies from 2008 to 2019 that evaluated community-based caregiver or family interventions to support the mental health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa, across four domains: (a) study methodology, (b) cultural adaptation and community participation, (c) intervention…
Descriptors: Intervention, Child Caregivers, Family (Sociological Unit), Mental Health
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Tuke, Robert; Sikorskii, Alla; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Webster, Kyle D.; Ismail, Alexander; Pobee, Ruth A.; Barkin, Jennifer L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Giordani, Bruno; Ezeamama, Amara E. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Cumulative lifetime adversity and social support were investigated as determinants of psychosocial adjustment (esteem, distress, hopefulness, positive outlook/future aspirations, and sense of purpose) over 12 months in 6-10-years-old HIV-infected, HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed uninfected children from Uganda. Each determinant and…
Descriptors: Social Adjustment, Emotional Adjustment, Self Esteem, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
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Thuma, Philip E. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Despite significant gains in the past 10 years in the treatment and care of children and adolescents with HIV infection, there is still need for advocacy for this group. The author discusses how far we have come and the need for on-going efforts, not only for appropriate child-friendly drug formulations, but also for cooperation between…
Descriptors: Advocacy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Drug Therapy, Children
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Gruver, Rachel S.; Mall, Sumaya; Kvalsvig, Jane D.; Knox, Justin R.; Mellins, Claude A.; Desmond, Chris; Kauchali, Shuaib; Arpadi, Stephen M.; Taylor, Myra; Davidson, Leslie L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Perinatal HIV infection is associated with delayed neurocognitive development, but less is known about children perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (CHEU). We compared cognitive and language outcomes in 4-6-year old CHEU versus children HIV-unexposed and uninfected (CHUU) and children living with HIV (CLHIV). We enrolled 1,581 children (77% of…
Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Preschool Children, Child Development, Scores
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Tan, Mei; Bowers, Megan; Thuma, Phil; Grigorenko, Elena L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Efavirenz (EFV) is a well-known, effective anti-retroviral drug long used in first-line treatment for children and adults with HIV and HIV/AIDS. Due to its narrow window of effective concentrations, between 1 and 4 µg/mL, and neurological side effects at supratherapeutic levels, several investigations into the pharmacokinetics of the drug and its…
Descriptors: Drug Therapy, Outcomes of Treatment, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Neurology
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Zhukova, Marina A.; Ovchinnikova, Irina; Logvinenko, Tatiana I.; Grigorenko, Elena L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
The current study investigated language development of children residing in institutional care (IC) in Russia, compared to peers raised by biological family care (BFC). We used standardized behavioral testing (Preschool Language Scale-5, McArthur CDI), and an event-related potential picture-word matching paradigm. Children in IC significantly…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Institutionalized Persons, Residential Care, Children
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An, Iuliia; Zhukova, Marina A.; Ovchinnikova, Irina; Grigorenko, Elena L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
The current study investigated the long-term effects of institutionalization on the inhibitory control of young adults raised in orphanages using the color-word Stroop task. We examined whether young adults raised in institutions (IC group; n = 24; M = 22.17 years, SD = 6.7) would demonstrate poorer behavioral performance and atypical neural…
Descriptors: Young Adults, Institutionalized Persons, Child Development, Stimuli
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Burenkova, Olga V.; Podturkin, Aleksei A. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Under conditions of suboptimal parental care, children with specific temperamental features have been shown to be especially vulnerable to the effects of stress. Most studies of temperamentally vulnerable children have been conducted using parental questionnaires, which are unfortunately not completely objective. An alternative approach, the use…
Descriptors: Personality Traits, Children, Child Rearing, At Risk Persons
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Garcia, Jessica L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
Health disparities in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are well documented in the literature, as AI/AN youth appear to be more likely to experience trauma and engage in high-risk behavior, such as substance misuse and risky sexual behavior. These youth also appear disproportionally affected by the criminal justice system. Scholars…
Descriptors: Trauma, American Indians, Alaska Natives, At Risk Persons
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Grigorenko, Elena L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
There is an increasing attention to the phenomenon referred to as "twice exceptional" ("2e") children, namely, children who demonstrate both exceptional abilities and disabilities. In this essay, this concept is applied to delinquency and/or emotional-behavior disorder and gifts (talents) in the performance arts, exploring the…
Descriptors: Delinquency, Juvenile Justice, Gifted Disabled, Emotional Disturbances
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Zhukova, Marina A. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
A number of studies to this day have examined the role of maternal childhood trauma in parenting styles, mental health, and child attachment patterns; however, there are limited data on parenting of mothers who were raised in institutional care (IC) and involved in the child welfare system. The current review focuses on maternal history of…
Descriptors: Mothers, Welfare Services, Child Abuse, Parenting Styles
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Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Lee, Maria; Magnuson, James S.; Naumova, Oxana Yu.; Ovchinnikova, Irina V.; Grigorenko, Elena L. – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
The etiological mechanisms of the genetic underpinnings of developmental language disorder (DLD) are unknown, in part due to the behavioral heterogeneity of the disorder's manifestations. In this study, we explored an association between the SETBP1 gene (18q21.1), revealed in a genome-wide association study of DLD in a geographically isolated…
Descriptors: Genetics, Language Impairments, Developmental Delays, Correlation
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Tan, Mei – New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020
It has been almost 40 years since HIV emerged in the human population with an alarming impact in 1981, quickly reaching pandemic proportions. Reaching the goal of eradication, or at least ending the pandemic, however, has not been as easy as hoped. To better understand and therefore better address the persistence and often devastating effects of…
Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Disease Incidence, Disease Control, Prevention
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