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National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2015
Science shows that children who do well despite serious hardship have had at least one stable and committed relationship with a supportive adult. These relationships buffer children from developmental disruption and help them develop "resilience," or the set of skills needed to respond to adversity and thrive. This working paper from the…
Descriptors: Social Environment, Environmental Influences, Resilience (Psychology), Child Development
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2012
Young children who experience severe deprivation or neglect can experience a range of negative consequences. Neglect can delay brain development, impair executive function skills, and disrupt the body's stress response. This working paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child explains why neglect is so harmful in the…
Descriptors: Child Neglect, Young Children, Brain, Executive Function
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011
Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…
Descriptors: Early Experience, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Brain
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010
Ensuring that young children have safe, secure environments in which to grow, learn, and develop healthy brains and bodies is not only good for the children themselves but also builds a strong foundation for a thriving, prosperous society. Science shows that early exposure to circumstances that produce persistent fear and chronic anxiety can have…
Descriptors: Young Children, Fear, Anxiety, Child Development
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010
New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…
Descriptors: Scientific Research, Brain, Environmental Influences, Early Experience
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is Characterized by a Delay in Cortical Maturation" (P. Shaw; K. Eckstrand; W. Sharp; J. Blumenthal; J. P. Lerch; D. Greenstein; L. Clasen; A. Evans; J. Giedd;…
Descriptors: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Brain, Child Development, Developmental Delays
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…
Descriptors: Pregnancy, Inhibition, Brain, Prenatal Influences
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…
Descriptors: Mental Health, Young Children, Interpersonal Competence, Child Development
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
This brief describes the findings of a study that tested preschoolers' executive function skills after participating in a program designed to enhance them vs. a standard curriculum. A total of 147 5-year-olds in their second year of preschool from a lower-income, urban school district participated in this study. The preschoolers were in 18…
Descriptors: Urban Schools, Academic Achievement, Academic Education, Preschool Children
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008
This brief presents the findings of a study that examined the effects of "allostatic load" on children in poverty at age 9 and 13. "Allostatic load" refers to the measurement of the cumulative wear and tear on the body that results from experiencing stress. Research shows that high allostatic load in childhood is associated with long-term…
Descriptors: Poverty, Economically Disadvantaged, Children, Stress Variables
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007
"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief reports on the study "Perinatal Exposure to a Noncoplanar Bichlorinated Biphenol Alters Tonotopy, Receptive Fields and Plasticity in the Auditory Cortex" (T. Kenet; R. C. Froemke; C. E. Schreiner; I. N. Pessah; and M. M.…
Descriptors: Prenatal Influences, Environmental Influences, Pollution, Hazardous Materials
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007
"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Prenatal Exposure to Ultrasound Waves Impacts Neuronal Migration in Mice" (E. S. B. C. Ang, Jr.; V. Gluncic; A. Duque; M. E. Schafer; and P.…
Descriptors: Animals, Brain, Diagnostic Tests, Medical Research
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007
It is the belief of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child that better public understanding of the rapidly growing science of early childhood and early brain development can provide a powerful impetus for the design and implementation of policies and programs that could make a significant difference in the lives of all children.…
Descriptors: Human Capital, Neurological Organization, Developmental Stages, Pediatrics
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007
The foundations of brain architecture are established early in life through a continuous series of dynamic interactions in which environmental conditions and personal experiences have a significant impact on how genetic predispositions are expressed. Because specific experiences affect specific brain circuits during specific developmental…
Descriptors: Child Development, Neurological Organization, Cognitive Development, Experience
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007
"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…
Descriptors: Emotional Development, Child Care, Child Development, Young Children
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