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Scott-Clayton, Judith; Schudde, Lauren – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016
College attendance is a risky investment. But students may not recognize when they are at risk for failure, and financial aid introduces the possibility for moral hazard. Academic performance standards can serve three roles in this context: signaling expectations for success, providing incentives for increased student effort, and limiting…
Descriptors: Need Analysis (Student Financial Aid), Student Financial Aid, Eligibility, College Students
Lafortune, Julien; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016
We study the impact of post-1990 school finance reforms, during the so-called "adequacy" era, on absolute and relative spending and achievement in low-income school districts. Using an event study research design that exploits the apparent randomness of reform timing, we show that reforms lead to sharp, immediate, and sustained increases…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Low Income Groups, School Districts, Academic Achievement
Page, Lindsay C.; Scott-Clayton, Judith – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2015
Socioeconomic gaps in college enrollment and attainment have widened over time, despite increasing returns to postsecondary education and significant policy efforts to improve access. We describe the barriers that students face during the transition to college and review the evidence on potential policy solutions. We focus primarily on research…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Access to Education, Barriers, Educational Policy
Heller, Sara B.; Shah, Anuj K.; Guryan, Jonathan; Ludwig, Jens; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Pollack, Harold A. – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2015
We present the results of three large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) carried out in Chicago, testing interventions to reduce crime and dropout by changing the decision-making of economically disadvantaged youth. We study a program called Becoming a Man (BAM), developed by the non-profit Youth Guidance, in two RCTs implemented in 2009-10…
Descriptors: Crime, Dropouts, Delinquency, Disadvantaged Youth
Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014
Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…
Descriptors: Health Insurance, Child Health, Access to Education, Federal Legislation
Walters, Christopher – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014
Studies of small-scale "model" early-childhood programs show that high-quality preschool can have transformative effects on human capital and economic outcomes. Evidence on the Head Start program is more mixed. Inputs and practices vary widely across Head Start centers, however, and little is known about variation in effectiveness within…
Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Human Capital, Evidence, Federal Programs
Gelman, Andrew; Imbens, Guido – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014
It is common in regression discontinuity analysis to control for high order (third, fourth, or higher) polynomials of the forcing variable. We argue that estimators for causal effects based on such methods can be misleading, and we recommend researchers do not use them, and instead use estimators based on local linear or quadratic polynomials or…
Descriptors: Regression (Statistics), Mathematical Models, Causal Models, Research Methodology
Abbott, Brant; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Meghir, Costas; Violante, Giovanni L. – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
This paper compares partial and general equilibrium effects of alternative financial aid policies intended to promote college participation. We build an overlapping generations life-cycle, heterogeneous-agent, incomplete-markets model with education, labor supply, and consumption/saving decisions. Altruistic parents make inter vivos transfers to…
Descriptors: Student Financial Aid, Labor, Tuition Grants, Labor Supply
Fletcher, Jason – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…
Descriptors: Children, Human Capital, Labor, Family Characteristics
Jackson, C. Kirabo – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
Unlike in elementary school, high-school teacher effects may be confounded with both selection to tracks and unobserved track-level treatments. I document sizable confounding track effects, and show that traditional tests for the existence of teacher effects are likely biased. After accounting for these biases, high-school algebra and English…
Descriptors: Teacher Influence, Value Added Models, Mathematics Instruction, Algebra
Fletcher, Jason; Mayer, Adalbert – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
The Texas 10% law states that students who graduated among the top 10% of their high school class are guaranteed admission to public universities in Texas. We estimate the causal effects of this admissions guarantee on a sequence of connected decisions: students' application behavior, admission decisions by the university, students' enrollment…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Private Colleges, Universities, College Admission
Beuermann, Diether W.; Cristia, Julian P.; Cruz-Aguayo, Yyannu; Cueto, Santiago; Malamud, Ofer – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
This paper presents results from a randomized control trial in which approximately 1,000 OLPC XO laptops were provided for home use to children attending primary schools in Lima, Peru. The intervention increased access and use of home computers, with some substitution away from computer use outside the home. Beneficiaries were more likely to…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Computer Uses in Education, Intervention, Elementary Schools
Jacob, Brian; McCall, Brian; Stange, Kevin M. – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
This paper investigates whether demand-side market pressure explains colleges' decisions to provide consumption amenities to their students. We estimate a discrete choice model of college demand using micro data from the high school classes of 1992 and 2004, matched to extensive information on all four year colleges in the U.S. We find that most…
Descriptors: Dormitories, Student Costs, Paying for College, Colleges
Collins, Courtney A.; Gan, Li – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
This paper examines schools' decisions to sort students into different classes and how those sorting processes impact student achievement. There are two potential effects that result from schools creating homogeneous classes--a "tracking effect," which allows teachers to direct their focus to a more narrow range of students, and a peer…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Limited English Speaking, Scores, Grouping (Instructional Purposes)
Murnane, Richard J. – National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013
I survey the evidence on patterns in U.S. high school graduation rates over the period 1970-2010 and report the results of new research conducted to fill in holes in the evidence. I begin by pointing out the strengths and limitations of existing data sources. I then describe six striking patterns in graduation rates. They include stagnation over…
Descriptors: Dropouts, Evidence, High School Graduates, Graduation
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