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Pettersson, Ingemar – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2018
The paper examines the introduction of the so-called professor's privilege in Sweden in the 1940s and shows how this legal principle for university patents emerged out of reforms of techno-science and the patent law around World War II. These political processes prompted questions concerning the nature and functions of university research: How is…
Descriptors: College Faculty, Foreign Countries, Intellectual Property, Science and Society
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Powell, Justin J. W.; Dusdal, Jennifer – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2017
Charting significant growth in science production over the 20th century in four European Union member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe's position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Scientific Research, Research Universities, Research and Development Centers
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Brint, Steven; Carr, Cynthia E. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2017
Extending and expanding Geiger and Feller's (1995) analysis of increasing dispersion in R&D expenditures during the 1980s, the paper analyzes publication and citation counts as well as R&D expenditures for 194 top producers using Web of Science data. We find high and stable levels of inequality in the 1990s and 2000s, combined with robust…
Descriptors: Scientific Research, Research Universities, Research and Development, Expenditures
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Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Paradeise, Catherine – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2014
Does organizational governance contribute to academic quality? Two top research universities are observed in-depth: Berkeley and the MIT. Three key factors are listed that help generate consistent and lasting high performance. Priority is allocated to self-evaluation and to the development of talent. Values and norms such as community membership,…
Descriptors: Research Universities, Governance, Educational Quality, College Administration
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Hermanowicz, Joseph C. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2013
Select groups and organizations embrace practices that perpetuate their inferiority. The result is the phenomenon we call "mediocrity." This article examines the conditions under which mediocrity is selected and maintained by groups over time. Mediocrity is maintained by a key social process: the marginalization of the adept, which is a…
Descriptors: Status, Social Stratification, Social Discrimination, Research Universities
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Cantwell, Brendan; Taylor, Barrett J. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2013
Ranking systems such as "The Times Higher Education's World University Rankings" and Shanghai Jiao Tong University's "Academic Rankings of World Universities" simultaneously mark global status and stimulate global academic competition. As international ranking systems have become more prominent, researchers have begun to examine whether global…
Descriptors: Research Universities, Competition, Status, Institutional Characteristics
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Sá, Creso; Kretz, Andrew; Sigurdson, Kristjan – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2013
Our historical study of Canada's main research university illuminates the overlooked influence of national identities and interests as forces shaping the institutionalization of technology transfer. Through the use of archival sources we trace the rise and influence of Canadian technological nationalism--a response to Canada's perceived dependency…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Research Universities, Educational History, Technology Transfer
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Halffman, Willem; Leydesdorff, Loet – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2010
One of the unintended consequences of the New Public Management (NPM) in universities is often feared to be a division between elite institutions focused on research and large institutions with teaching missions. However, institutional isomorphisms provide counter-incentives. For example, university rankings focus on certain output parameters such…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Research Universities, Colleges, Equal Education
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Feller, Irwin – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2009
Neoliberal precepts of the governance of academic science-deregulation; reification of markets; emphasis on competitive allocation processes have been conflated with those of performance management--if you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it--into a single analytical and consequent single programmatic worldview. As applied to the United…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Research Universities, Governance, Science Education
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Coccia, Mario – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2009
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature of bureaucratization within public research bodies and its relationship to scientific performance, focusing on an Italian case-study. The main finding is that the bureaucratization of the research sector has two dimensions: public research labs have academic bureaucratization since researchers…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Researchers, Foreign Countries, Case Studies
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Pouris, Anastassios – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2007
The accurate measurement of the time spent by academics on research and development activities is of great importance to universities and government. This essay outlines the ways in which different countries estimate these factors, and suggests ways of producing more reliable estimates.
Descriptors: Research and Development, Measurement Techniques, Costs, Research Administration
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Brint, Steven – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2005
This paper assesses the causes and consequences of recent American efforts to configure the research university as an engine of economic and social change. Drawing upon interviews and strategic plans, the paper describes recent policies to encourage "interdisciplinary creativity," in a context of increasing income from private gifts and endowments.
Descriptors: Social Change, Strategic Planning, Research Universities, Economic Change
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Geiger, Roger L.; Sa, Creso – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2005
This paper examines the recent history of State-level policies in the United States for knowledge-based economic development, and identifies an emerging model based on technology creation. This new model goes beyond traditional investments in technology transfer and prioritizes cutting-edge scientific research in economically relevant fields. As…
Descriptors: Economic Development, Scientific Research, Research Universities, Technology Transfer
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Lecuyer, Christophe – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2005
It is widely argued that, in the United States, the Department of Defense dictated the intellectual contours of academic science and engineering during the Cold War. However, in important ways, American science was also deeply influenced by industry. Between 1955 and 1985, Stanford University embraced three waves of industrial innovation in solid…
Descriptors: Electronics, Industry, War, Innovation
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Soo, Mary; Carson, Cathryn – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2004
In the 1950s and 1960s, Clark Kerr led the University of California's Berkeley campus, and then the University of California as a whole. Throughout these years, he developed a system of managerial strategies. This paper shows how Kerr's administrative views drew upon his background in industrial relations, his liberal theories of pluralistic…
Descriptors: Research Universities, Administrator Role, Organizational Change, Organizational Theories