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Pettersson, Ingemar – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2018
The paper examines the introduction of the so-called professor's privilege in Sweden in the 1940s and shows how this legal principle for university patents emerged out of reforms of techno-science and the patent law around World War II. These political processes prompted questions concerning the nature and functions of university research: How is…
Descriptors: College Faculty, Foreign Countries, Intellectual Property, Science and Society
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Krasnodebski, Marcin – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2018
The initiatives attempting to forge links between the academia and the industry flourished in France after World War I. The so-called "industrial institutes" shared a common goal: to reinvigorate the French economy through science. Because of their focus on applied research, they differed from traditional engineering schools that usually…
Descriptors: Industry, Scientific Research, War, Foreign Countries
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Hammarfelt, Björn; de Rijcke, Sarah; Wouters, Paul – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2017
Global university rankings have become increasingly important "calculative devices" for assessing the "quality" of higher education and research. Their ability to make characteristics of universities "calculable" is here exemplified by the first proper university ranking ever, produced as early as 1910 by the American…
Descriptors: Universities, Excellence in Education, Reputation, Educational Quality
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Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2015
In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical development of academic positions since the…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational Practices, Academic Rank (Professional), Career Development
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Tsvetkova, Natalia – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2014
This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational History, Universities, World History
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Sá, Creso; Kretz, Andrew; Sigurdson, Kristjan – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2013
Our historical study of Canada's main research university illuminates the overlooked influence of national identities and interests as forces shaping the institutionalization of technology transfer. Through the use of archival sources we trace the rise and influence of Canadian technological nationalism--a response to Canada's perceived dependency…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Research Universities, Educational History, Technology Transfer
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Kaataja, Sampsa – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2011
Regardless of the increased interest in technological innovation in universities, relatively little is known about the technology developed by academic scientists. Long-term analyses of researchers' technological contribution are notably missing. This paper examines university-based technology in Finland during the period 1900-85. The focus is on…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Scientists, Researchers, College Faculty
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Harwood, Jonathan – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2010
"Academic drift" is a term sometimes used to describe the process whereby knowledge which is intended to be useful gradually loses close ties to practice while becoming more tightly integrated with one or other body of scientific knowledge. Drift in this sense has been a common phenomenon in agriculture, engineering, medicine and management…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Professional Education, Technical Education, Relevance (Education)
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Tchalakov, Ivan; Mitev, Tihomir; Petrov, Venelin – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2010
The paper questions some of the premises in studying academic spin-offs in developed countries, claiming that when taken as characteristics of "academic spin-offs per se," they are of little help in understanding the phenomenon in the Eastern European countries during the transitional and post-transitional periods after 1989. It argues…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Developed Nations, Entrepreneurship, Educational History
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Johnston, Sean F. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2009
The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…
Descriptors: Educational Policy, Higher Education, Science Education, Engineering
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Macleod, Roy – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2008
In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…
Descriptors: Economic Development, War, Foreign Countries, Foreign Policy
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Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2007
The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…
Descriptors: Academic Degrees, Higher Education, Foreign Countries, Educational History
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Lee, J. M. – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2006
Between 1940 and 1960, the British Government became increasingly concerned with the welfare of students coming to Britain from the dependent territories of the Commonwealth. The reasons were political, cultural, and economic. This essay traces the transition of official attitudes, from modest promotion to active policy. With the coming "end…
Descriptors: Student Welfare, Foreign Countries, Foreign Students, Educational History
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Soo, Mary; Carson, Cathryn – Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 2004
In the 1950s and 1960s, Clark Kerr led the University of California's Berkeley campus, and then the University of California as a whole. Throughout these years, he developed a system of managerial strategies. This paper shows how Kerr's administrative views drew upon his background in industrial relations, his liberal theories of pluralistic…
Descriptors: Research Universities, Administrator Role, Organizational Change, Organizational Theories