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ERIC Number: EJ1201264
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Feb
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence to Teach Conceptual Understanding of Basic Multiplication and Division
Milton, Jessica H.; Flores, Margaret M.; Moore, Alexcia J.; Taylor, Ja'Lia J.; Burton, Megan E.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v42 n1 p32-45 Feb 2019
To meet increasingly complex mathematics standards in late elementary school, students must conceptually understand and be fluent in the operations of multiplication and division. This includes understanding the operations' inverse relation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of alternating concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) multiplication and division instruction on students' mastery of unknown facts and on their conceptual understanding. Fourth through sixth-grade students with learning disabilities who had failed to master all multiplication facts participated in the study. The researchers used a mixed method design, measuring accuracy and fluency of facts with a multiple probe across students design and qualitative methods to capture changes in students' explanations of their computation. The researchers demonstrated a functional relation between CRA instruction and accuracy and fluency in multiplication and division. Qualitative results indicated differences in students' understanding of the operations. Implications of the results will be discussed further.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools; Grade 6
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A