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Showing 46 to 60 of 1,241 results Save | Export
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Smedley, Elizabeth B.; Smith, Kyle S. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Sign-tracking is a form of autoshaping where animals develop conditioned responding directed toward stimuli predictive of an outcome even though the outcome is not contingent on the animal's behavior. Sign-tracking behaviors are thought to arise out of the attribution of incentive salience (i.e., motivational value) to reward-predictive cues. It…
Descriptors: Cues, Rewards, Persistence, Responses
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Atlas, Lauren Y.; Phelps, Elizabeth A. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders are thought to capture attention due to evolutionary significance. Classical conditioning experiments indicate that these stimuli accelerate learning, while instructed extinction experiments suggest they may be less responsive to instructions. We manipulated stimulus type during instructed aversive…
Descriptors: Fear, Stimuli, Hypothesis Testing, Visual Stimuli
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Mei, Hao; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana – Learning & Memory, 2018
Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Animals, Memory
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Baggett, Vincent; Mishra, Aditi; Kehrer, Abigail L.; Robinson, Abbey O.; Shaw, Paul; Zars, Troy – Learning & Memory, 2018
Animals in a natural environment confront many sensory cues. Some of these cues bias behavioral decisions independent of experience, and action selection can reveal a stimulus-response (S-R) connection. However, in a changing environment it would be a benefit for an animal to update behavioral action selection based on experience, and learning…
Descriptors: Cues, Stimuli, Animal Behavior, Entomology
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Viczko, Jeremy; Sergeeva, Valya; Ray, Laura B.; Owen, Adrian M.; Fogel, Stuart M. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation…
Descriptors: Sleep, Memory, Visual Perception, Psychomotor Skills
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McHail, Daniel G.; Valibeigi, Nazanin; Dumas, Theodore C. – Learning & Memory, 2018
The neural bases of cognition may be greatly informed by relating temporally defined developmental changes in behavior with concurrent alterations in neural function. A robust improvement in performance in spatial learning and memory tasks occurs at 3 wk of age in rodents. We reported that the developmental increase of spontaneous alternation in a…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Memory, Animals, Brain Hemisphere Functions
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Snow, Wanda M.; Cadonic, Chris; Cortes-Perez, Claudia; Chowdhury, Subir K. Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Thomson, Ella; Bernstein, Michael J.; Suh, Miyoung; Fernyhough, Paul; Albensi, Benedict C. – Learning & Memory, 2018
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial…
Descriptors: Energy, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Animals, Spatial Ability
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Westerberg, Carmen E.; Hawkins, Christopher A.; Rendon, Lauren – Learning & Memory, 2018
Reality-monitoring errors occur when internally generated thoughts are remembered as external occurrences. We hypothesized that sleep-dependent memory consolidation could reduce them by strengthening connections between items and their contexts during an afternoon nap. Participants viewed words and imagined their referents. Pictures of the…
Descriptors: Sleep, Memory, Hypothesis Testing, Visual Stimuli
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Shu, Guanhua; Kramár, Enikö A.; López, Alberto J.; Huynh, Grace; Wood, Marcelo A.; Kwapis, Janine L. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including histone acetylation and nucleosome remodeling, are known to be involved in long-term memory formation. Enhancing histone acetylation by deleting histone deacetylases, like HDAC3, typically enhances long-term memory formation. In contrast, disrupting nucleosome remodeling by blocking the neuron-specific…
Descriptors: Long Term Memory, Genetics, Molecular Structure, Neurological Impairments
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Ocampo, Amber C.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Prior experience has been shown to improve learning in both humans and animals, but it is unclear what aspects of recent experience are necessary to produce beneficial effects. Here, we examined the capacity of rats with complete hippocampal lesions, restricted CA1 lesions, or sham surgeries to benefit from prior experience. Animals were tested in…
Descriptors: Prior Learning, Experience, Spatial Ability, Memory
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Wynn, Syanah C.; Hendriks, Marc P. H.; Daselaar, Sander M.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Functional neuroimaging studies suggest a role for the left angular gyrus (AG) in processes related to memory recognition. However, results of neuropsychological and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have been inconclusive regarding the specific contribution of the AG in recollection, familiarity, and the subjective experience of…
Descriptors: Memory, Brain, Stimulation, Brain Hemisphere Functions
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Sinclair, Alyssa H.; Barense, Morgan D. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Through the process of "reconsolidation," reminders can temporarily destabilize memories and render them vulnerable to change. Recent rodent research has proposed that prediction error, or the element of surprise, is a key component of this process; yet, this hypothesis has never before been extended to complex episodic memories in…
Descriptors: Memory, Prediction, Error Patterns, Cues
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Doncheck, Elizabeth M.; Hafenbreidel, Madalyn; Ruder, Sarah A.; Fitzgerald, Michael K.; Torres, Lilith; Mueller, Devin – Learning & Memory, 2018
In cocaine use disorder, relapse can be elicited by drug-associated cues despite long periods of abstinence. The persistence of drug-associated cues in eliciting drug seeking suggests enduring changes in structural and functional plasticity, which may be mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2). Stimulant drug use increases bFGF…
Descriptors: Cocaine, Cues, Drug Use, Rewards
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Cohen, Justine E.; Ross, Robert S.; Stern, Chantal E. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Previous research has demonstrated that areas in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex (PFC) show increased activation during retrieval of overlapping sequences. In this study, we designed a task in which degree of overlap varied between conditions in order to parse out the contributions of hippocampal and prefrontal subregions as overlap…
Descriptors: Prediction, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Visual Stimuli, Diagnostic Tests
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Frank, Darya; Montaldi, Daniela; Wittmann, Bianca; Talmi, Deborah – Learning & Memory, 2018
Mental schemas provide a framework into which new information can easily be integrated. In a series of experiments, we examined how incongruence that stems from a prediction error modulates memory for multicomponent events that instantiated preexisting schemas as noted in a previous study. Each event consisted of four stimulus pairs with…
Descriptors: Memory, Prediction, Error Patterns, Cues
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