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Piantadosi, Patrick T.; Lieberman, Abby G.; Pickens, Charles L.; Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Holmes, Andrew – Learning & Memory, 2019
Cognitive flexibility refers to various processes which enable behaviors to be modified on the basis of a change in the contingencies between stimuli or responses and their associated outcomes. Reversal learning is a form of cognitive flexibility which measures the ability to adjust responding based on a switch in the stimulus--outcome…
Descriptors: Animals, Cognitive Processes, Behavior Modification, Stimuli
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Barker, Jacqueline M.; Bryant, Kathleen G.; Chandler, L. Judson – Learning & Memory, 2019
The loss of behavioral flexibility is common across a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses. This may be in part due to the loss of the ability to detect or use changes in action-outcome contingencies to guide behavior. There is growing evidence that the ventral hippocampus plays a critical role in the regulation of flexible behavior and…
Descriptors: Brain, Rewards, Behavior Patterns, Cognitive Processes
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Aumont, Étienne; Blanchette, Caroll-Ann; Bohbot, Veronique D.; West, Greg L. – Learning & Memory, 2019
When people navigate, they use strategies dependent on one of two memory systems. The hippocampus-based spatial strategy consists of using multiple landmarks to create a cognitive map of the environment. In contrast, the caudate nucleus-based response strategy is based on the memorization of a series of turns. Importantly, response learners…
Descriptors: Memory, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memorization, Navigation
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Araiba, Sho; El Massioui, Nicole; Brown, Bruce L.; Doyère, Valérie – Learning & Memory, 2018
This study demonstrates that overtraining in temporal discrimination modifies temporal stimulus control in a bisection task and produces habitual responding, as evidenced through insensitivity to food devaluation. Rats were trained or overtrained in a 2-versus 8-sec temporal discrimination task, with each duration associated with a lever (left or…
Descriptors: Time, Training, Animals, Perception
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Marshall, Andrew T.; Ostlund, Sean B. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Drug-paired cues acquire powerful motivational properties, but only lead to active drug-seeking behavior if they are potent enough to overwhelm the cognitive control processes that serve to suppress such urges. Studies using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task have shown that rats pretreated with cocaine or amphetamine exhibit…
Descriptors: Cues, Drug Use, Animals, Delay of Gratification
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Smedley, Elizabeth B.; Smith, Kyle S. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Sign-tracking is a form of autoshaping where animals develop conditioned responding directed toward stimuli predictive of an outcome even though the outcome is not contingent on the animal's behavior. Sign-tracking behaviors are thought to arise out of the attribution of incentive salience (i.e., motivational value) to reward-predictive cues. It…
Descriptors: Cues, Rewards, Persistence, Responses
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Atlas, Lauren Y.; Phelps, Elizabeth A. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders are thought to capture attention due to evolutionary significance. Classical conditioning experiments indicate that these stimuli accelerate learning, while instructed extinction experiments suggest they may be less responsive to instructions. We manipulated stimulus type during instructed aversive…
Descriptors: Fear, Stimuli, Hypothesis Testing, Visual Stimuli
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Westerberg, Carmen E.; Hawkins, Christopher A.; Rendon, Lauren – Learning & Memory, 2018
Reality-monitoring errors occur when internally generated thoughts are remembered as external occurrences. We hypothesized that sleep-dependent memory consolidation could reduce them by strengthening connections between items and their contexts during an afternoon nap. Participants viewed words and imagined their referents. Pictures of the…
Descriptors: Sleep, Memory, Hypothesis Testing, Visual Stimuli
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Cohen, Justine E.; Ross, Robert S.; Stern, Chantal E. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Previous research has demonstrated that areas in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex (PFC) show increased activation during retrieval of overlapping sequences. In this study, we designed a task in which degree of overlap varied between conditions in order to parse out the contributions of hippocampal and prefrontal subregions as overlap…
Descriptors: Prediction, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Visual Stimuli, Diagnostic Tests
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Derman, Rifka C.; Schneider, Kevin; Juarez, Shaina; Delamater, Andrew R. – Learning & Memory, 2018
When discrete localizable stimuli are used during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning, "sign-tracking" and "goal-tracking" responses emerge. Sign-tracking is observed when conditioned responding is directed toward the CS, whereas goal-tracking manifests as responding directed to the site of expected reward delivery. These…
Descriptors: Conditioning, Responses, Stimuli, Rewards
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Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Moscarello, Justin M.; Sears, Robert M.; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac – Learning & Memory, 2018
Signaled active avoidance (SigAA) is the key experimental procedure for studying the acquisition of instrumental responses toward conditioned threat cues. Traditional analytic approaches (e.g., general linear model) often obfuscate important individual differences, although individual differences in learned responses characterize both animal and…
Descriptors: Conditioning, Cues, Responses, Individual Differences
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Nieto, Javier; Uengoer, Metin; Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo – Learning & Memory, 2017
One experiment with rats explored whether an extinction-cue prevents the recovery of extinguished lever-pressing responses. Initially, rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in Context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) in Context B. Then, responses were extinguished each in the alternate context (R1 in…
Descriptors: Cues, Animals, Experiments, Learning Processes
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Andreatta, Marta; Neueder, Dorothea; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul – Learning & Memory, 2017
Animal studies suggest that time delay between acquisition and retrieval of contextual anxiety increases generalization. Moreover, such generalization is prevented by preexposure to the context (CTX), presumably due to an improved representation of such context. We investigated whether preexposure and time-passing modulate generalization of…
Descriptors: Anxiety, Generalization, Memory, Safety
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Childs, Jessica E.; DeLeon, Jaime; Nickel, Emily; Kroener, Sven – Learning & Memory, 2017
Drugs of abuse cause changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated regions that impair inhibitory control over drug-seeking. Breaking the contingencies between drug-associated cues and the delivery of the reward during extinction learning reduces rates of relapse. Here we used vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to induce targeted synaptic…
Descriptors: Cocaine, Genetics, Drug Use, Drug Abuse
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Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico – Learning & Memory, 2017
The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the…
Descriptors: Memory, Information Retrieval, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Neurology
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