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Piantadosi, Patrick T.; Lieberman, Abby G.; Pickens, Charles L.; Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Holmes, Andrew – Learning & Memory, 2019
Cognitive flexibility refers to various processes which enable behaviors to be modified on the basis of a change in the contingencies between stimuli or responses and their associated outcomes. Reversal learning is a form of cognitive flexibility which measures the ability to adjust responding based on a switch in the stimulus--outcome…
Descriptors: Animals, Cognitive Processes, Behavior Modification, Stimuli
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Barker, Jacqueline M.; Bryant, Kathleen G.; Chandler, L. Judson – Learning & Memory, 2019
The loss of behavioral flexibility is common across a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses. This may be in part due to the loss of the ability to detect or use changes in action-outcome contingencies to guide behavior. There is growing evidence that the ventral hippocampus plays a critical role in the regulation of flexible behavior and…
Descriptors: Brain, Rewards, Behavior Patterns, Cognitive Processes
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Ilse, Arne; Prameswari, Virginia; Kahl, Evelyn; Fendt, Markus – Learning & Memory, 2019
Trait anxiety is considered to be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate how trait anxiety affects associative learning during and after an aversive event in laboratory rats. For this, rats were first submitted to a light-dark box test, followed by relief, safety, and fear learning. Our data…
Descriptors: Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Risk, Associative Learning
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Brandwein, Nathan J.; Nguyen, Peter V. – Learning & Memory, 2019
Beta-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) activation by norepinephrine (NE) enhances memory and stabilizes long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity believed to underlie some forms of hippocampal memory. LTP can occur at multiple synaptic pathways as a result of strong stimulation to one pathway preceding milder stimulation of an adjacent,…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memory, Biochemistry, Physiology
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Wolter, Michael; Huff, Ethan; Speigel, Talia; Winters, Boyer D.; Leri, Francesco – Learning & Memory, 2019
To test the hypothesis that drugs of abuse and their conditioned stimuli (CSs) enhance memory consolidation, the effects of post-training exposure to cocaine and nicotine were compared to the effects of post-training exposure to contextual stimuli that were paired with the effects of these drugs. Using the object recognition (OR) task, it was…
Descriptors: Cocaine, Smoking, Substance Abuse, Recognition (Psychology)
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Broschard, Matthew B.; Kim, Jangjin; Love, Bradley C.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Freeman, John H. – Learning & Memory, 2019
A prominent theory of category learning, COVIS, posits that new categories are learned with either a declarative or procedural system, depending on the task. The declarative system uses the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to learn rule-based (RB) category tasks in which there is one relevant sensory dimension that can be used to establish a rule for…
Descriptors: Task Analysis, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Learning Processes, Animals
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Wong, Edwin W.; Glasgow, Stephen D.; Trigiani, Lianne J.; Chitsaz, Daryan; Rymar, Vladimir; Sadikot, Abbas; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Hamel, Edith; Kennedy, Timothy E. – Learning & Memory, 2019
Netrin-1 was initially characterized as an axon guidance molecule that is essential for normal embryonic neural development; however, many types of neurons continue to express netrin-1 in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain. Netrin-1 and the netrin receptor DCC are both enriched at synapses. In the adult hippocampus, activity-dependent…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Memory, Adults, Brain
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Weiglein, Alice; Gerstner, Florian; Mancini, Nino; Schleyer, Michael; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2019
Animals of many species are capable of "small data" learning, that is, of learning without repetition. Here we introduce larval "Drosophila melanogaster" as a relatively simple study case for such one-trial learning. Using odor-food associative conditioning, we first show that a sugar that is both sweet and nutritious…
Descriptors: Animals, Associative Learning, Conditioning, Memory
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Tong, Michelle T.; Kim, Tae-Young P.; Cleland, Thomas A. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)--a process that is closely associated…
Descriptors: Memory, Olfactory Perception, Role, Animals
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Aten, Sydney; Hansen, Katelin F.; Snider, Kaitlin; Wheaton, Kelin; Kalidindi, Anisha; Garcia, Ashley; Alzate-Correa, Diego; Hoyt, Kari R.; Obrietan, Karl – Learning & Memory, 2018
The microRNA miR-132 serves as a key regulator of a wide range of plasticity-associated processes in the central nervous system. Interestingly, miR-132 expression has also been shown to be under the control of the circadian timing system. This finding, coupled with work showing that miR-132 is expressed in the hippocampus, where it influences…
Descriptors: Neurology, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memory, Animals
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Briskin-Luchinsky, Valeria; Tam, Shlomit; Shabbat, Schlomit; Hurwitz, Itay; Susswein, Abraham J. – Learning & Memory, 2018
A learning experience may lead to changes in behavior during the experience, and also to memory expressed at a later time. Are signals causing changes in behavior during the learning experience related to the formation and expression of memory? We examined this question, using learning that food is inedible in "Aplysia." Treatment of an…
Descriptors: Memory, Behavior Change, Animals, Food
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Colon, Lorianna; Odynocki, Natalie; Santarelli, Anthony; Poulos, Andrew M. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Development and sex differentiation impart an organizational influence on the neuroanatomy and behavior of mammalian species. Prior studies suggest that brain regions associated with fear motivated defensive behavior undergo a protracted and sex-dependent development. Outside of adult animals, evidence for developmental sex differences in…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Fear, Behavior
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Yu, Dinghui; Tan, Ying; Chakraborty, Molee; Tomchik, Seth; Davis, Ronald L. – Learning & Memory, 2018
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that…
Descriptors: Olfactory Perception, Animals, Genetics, Memory
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Travaglia, Alessio; Steinmetz, Adam B.; Miranda, Janelle M.; Alberini, Christina M. – Learning & Memory, 2018
Episodic memories in early childhood are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon that is associated with "infantile amnesia," the inability of adults to remember early-life experiences. We recently showed that early aversive contextual memory in infant rats, which is in fact rapidly forgotten, is actually not lost, as reminders presented later…
Descriptors: Animals, Geographic Location, Learning, Memory
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Bisby, Madelyne A.; Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick – Learning & Memory, 2018
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are considered critical for the consolidation of extinction but recent work challenges this assumption. Namely, NMDARs are not required for extinction retention in infant rats as well as when extinction training occurs for a second time (i.e., reextinction) in adult rats. In this study, a possible third instance of…
Descriptors: Fear, Learning Processes, Conditioning, Brain
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