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Showing 1 to 15 of 1,241 results Save | Export
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Piantadosi, Patrick T.; Lieberman, Abby G.; Pickens, Charles L.; Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Holmes, Andrew – Learning & Memory, 2019
Cognitive flexibility refers to various processes which enable behaviors to be modified on the basis of a change in the contingencies between stimuli or responses and their associated outcomes. Reversal learning is a form of cognitive flexibility which measures the ability to adjust responding based on a switch in the stimulus--outcome…
Descriptors: Animals, Cognitive Processes, Behavior Modification, Stimuli
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Williams, McKenna E.; Graves, Lisa V.; DeJesus, Shannon Yandall; Holden, Heather M.; DeFord, Nicole E.; Gilbert, Paul E. – Learning & Memory, 2019
Spatial memory impairment is well documented in old age; however, less is known about spatial memory during middle age. We examined the performance of healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults on a spatial memory task with varying levels of spatial similarity (distance). On low similarity trials, young adults significantly outperformed…
Descriptors: Memory, Spatial Ability, Adults, Age Differences
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van Buuren, Mariët; Wagner, Isabella C.; Fernández, Guillén – Learning & Memory, 2019
Intrinsic network interactions may underlie individual differences in the ability to remember. The default mode network (DMN) comprises subnetworks implicated in memory, and interactions between the DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN) were shown to support mnemonic processing. However, it is unclear if such interactions during resting-state…
Descriptors: Memory, Individual Differences, Interaction, Brain
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Barker, Jacqueline M.; Bryant, Kathleen G.; Chandler, L. Judson – Learning & Memory, 2019
The loss of behavioral flexibility is common across a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses. This may be in part due to the loss of the ability to detect or use changes in action-outcome contingencies to guide behavior. There is growing evidence that the ventral hippocampus plays a critical role in the regulation of flexible behavior and…
Descriptors: Brain, Rewards, Behavior Patterns, Cognitive Processes
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Merz, Christian J.; Wolf, Oliver T. – Learning & Memory, 2019
The immediate extinction deficit describes a higher return of fear when extinction takes place immediately after fear acquisition compared to a delayed extinction design. One explanation for this phenomenon encompasses the remaining emotional arousal evoked by fear acquisition to be still present during immediate, but not delayed extinction. In…
Descriptors: Fear, Learning Processes, Task Analysis, Recall (Psychology)
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Ilse, Arne; Prameswari, Virginia; Kahl, Evelyn; Fendt, Markus – Learning & Memory, 2019
Trait anxiety is considered to be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate how trait anxiety affects associative learning during and after an aversive event in laboratory rats. For this, rats were first submitted to a light-dark box test, followed by relief, safety, and fear learning. Our data…
Descriptors: Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Risk, Associative Learning
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Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Mecklinger, Axel; Zimmer, Hubert – Learning & Memory, 2019
Recognition memory judgments can be influenced by a variety of signals including fluency. Here, we investigated whether the neural correlates of memory illusions (i.e., misattribution of fluency to prior study) can be modulated by fluency context. Using a masked priming/recognition memory paradigm, we found memory illusions for low confidence…
Descriptors: Recognition (Psychology), Memory, Neurology, Priming
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Brandwein, Nathan J.; Nguyen, Peter V. – Learning & Memory, 2019
Beta-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) activation by norepinephrine (NE) enhances memory and stabilizes long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity believed to underlie some forms of hippocampal memory. LTP can occur at multiple synaptic pathways as a result of strong stimulation to one pathway preceding milder stimulation of an adjacent,…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memory, Biochemistry, Physiology
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Wolter, Michael; Huff, Ethan; Speigel, Talia; Winters, Boyer D.; Leri, Francesco – Learning & Memory, 2019
To test the hypothesis that drugs of abuse and their conditioned stimuli (CSs) enhance memory consolidation, the effects of post-training exposure to cocaine and nicotine were compared to the effects of post-training exposure to contextual stimuli that were paired with the effects of these drugs. Using the object recognition (OR) task, it was…
Descriptors: Cocaine, Smoking, Substance Abuse, Recognition (Psychology)
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Broschard, Matthew B.; Kim, Jangjin; Love, Bradley C.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Freeman, John H. – Learning & Memory, 2019
A prominent theory of category learning, COVIS, posits that new categories are learned with either a declarative or procedural system, depending on the task. The declarative system uses the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to learn rule-based (RB) category tasks in which there is one relevant sensory dimension that can be used to establish a rule for…
Descriptors: Task Analysis, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Learning Processes, Animals
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Leganes-Fonteneau, Mateo; Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Scott, Ryan; Duka, Theodora – Learning & Memory, 2019
Stimuli conditioned with a substance can generate drug-approach behaviors due to their acquired motivational properties. According to implicit theories of addiction, these stimuli can decrease cognitive control automatically. The present study (n = 49) examined whether reward-associated stimuli can interfere with cognitive processes in the absence…
Descriptors: Knowledge Level, Rewards, Conditioning, Bayesian Statistics
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Haque, Rafi U.; Manzanares, Cecelia M.; Brown, Lavonda N.; Pongos, Alvince L.; Lah, James J.; Clifford, Gari D.; Levey, Allan I. – Learning & Memory, 2019
The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is one of the earliest sites of cortical pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Visuospatial memory paradigms that are mediated by the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit may offer a means to detect memory impairment during the early stages of AD. In this study, we developed a 4-min visuospatial memory paradigm called…
Descriptors: Alzheimers Disease, Memory, Visual Perception, Spatial Ability
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Wong, Edwin W.; Glasgow, Stephen D.; Trigiani, Lianne J.; Chitsaz, Daryan; Rymar, Vladimir; Sadikot, Abbas; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Hamel, Edith; Kennedy, Timothy E. – Learning & Memory, 2019
Netrin-1 was initially characterized as an axon guidance molecule that is essential for normal embryonic neural development; however, many types of neurons continue to express netrin-1 in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain. Netrin-1 and the netrin receptor DCC are both enriched at synapses. In the adult hippocampus, activity-dependent…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Memory, Adults, Brain
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Jiang, Alice; Tran, Tammy T.; Madison, Farrah N.; Bakker, Arnold – Learning & Memory, 2019
Stress is a potent modulator of brain function and particularly mnemonic processes. While chronic stress is associated with long-term deficits in memory, the effects of acute stress on mnemonic functions are less clear as previous reports have been inconsistent. Some studies suggest that cortisol, a stress hormone that modulates biological changes…
Descriptors: Stress Variables, Mnemonics, Memory, Control Groups
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Aumont, Étienne; Blanchette, Caroll-Ann; Bohbot, Veronique D.; West, Greg L. – Learning & Memory, 2019
When people navigate, they use strategies dependent on one of two memory systems. The hippocampus-based spatial strategy consists of using multiple landmarks to create a cognitive map of the environment. In contrast, the caudate nucleus-based response strategy is based on the memorization of a series of turns. Importantly, response learners…
Descriptors: Memory, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memorization, Navigation
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