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Weiglein, Alice; Gerstner, Florian; Mancini, Nino; Schleyer, Michael; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2019
Animals of many species are capable of "small data" learning, that is, of learning without repetition. Here we introduce larval "Drosophila melanogaster" as a relatively simple study case for such one-trial learning. Using odor-food associative conditioning, we first show that a sugar that is both sweet and nutritious…
Descriptors: Animals, Associative Learning, Conditioning, Memory
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König, Christian; Khalili, Afshin; Ganesan, Mathangi; Nishu, Amrita P.; Garza, Alejandra P.; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Aso, Yoshinori; Yarali, Ayse – Learning & Memory, 2018
Painful events establish opponent memories: cues that precede pain are remembered negatively, whereas cues that follow pain, thus coinciding with relief are recalled positively. How do individual reinforcement-signaling neurons contribute to this "timing-dependent valence-reversal?" We addressed this question using an optogenetic…
Descriptors: Negative Reinforcement, Conditioning, Entomology, Memory
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Kleber, Jörg; Chen, Yi-Chun; Michels, Birgit; Saumweber, Timo; Schleyer, Michael; Kähne, Thilo; Buchner, Erich; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2016
Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein. It is encoded by only one gene in the "Drosophila" genome and is expressed throughout the nervous system. It regulates the balance between reserve and releasable vesicles, is required to maintain transmission upon heavy demand, and is essential for proper memory function…
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Genetics, Scores, Short Term Memory
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Schleyer, Michael; Reid, Samuel F.; Pamir, Evren; Saumweber, Timo; Paisios, Emmanouil; Davies, Alexander; Gerber, Bertram; Louis, Matthieu – Learning & Memory, 2015
How do animals adaptively integrate innate with learned behavioral tendencies? We tackle this question using chemotaxis as a paradigm. Chemotaxis in the "Drosophila" larva largely results from a sequence of runs and oriented turns. Thus, the larvae minimally need to determine (i) how fast to run, (ii) when to initiate a turn, and (iii)…
Descriptors: Olfactory Perception, Memory, Rewards, Entomology
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Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse; Diegelmann, Sören; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Pauli, Paul; Fendt, Marcus – Learning & Memory, 2014
Memories relating to a painful, negative event are adaptive and can be stored for a lifetime to support preemptive avoidance, escape, or attack behavior. However, under unfavorable circumstances such memories can become overwhelmingly powerful. They may trigger excessively negative psychological states and uncontrollable avoidance of locations,…
Descriptors: Pain, Learning Processes, Memory, Emotional Disturbances
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Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul – Learning & Memory, 2012
Two things are worth remembering about an aversive event: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive event, it becomes a signal for threat and will later elicit behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive event, it elicits behavior indicating…
Descriptors: Memory, Fear, Rewards, Stimuli
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Schleyer, Michael; Saumweber, Timo; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Fischer, Benjamin; von Alpen, Desiree; Pauls, Dennis; Thum, Andreas; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2011
Drosophila larvae combine a numerically simple brain, a correspondingly moderate behavioral complexity, and the availability of a rich toolbox for transgenic manipulation. This makes them attractive as a study case when trying to achieve a circuit-level understanding of behavior organization. From a series of behavioral experiments, we suggest a…
Descriptors: Entomology, Behavior, Expectation, Brain
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Michels, Birgit; Chen, Yi-chun; Saumweber, Timo; Mishra, Dushyant; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Schmid, Benjamin; Engmann, Olivia; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2011
Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved, presynaptic vesicular phosphoprotein. Here, we ask where and how synapsin functions in associative behavioral plasticity. Upon loss or reduction of synapsin in a deletion mutant or via RNAi, respectively, "Drosophila" larvae are impaired in odor-sugar associative learning. Acute global expression of…
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cytology
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Knapek, Stephan; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimoto, Hiromu – Learning & Memory, 2010
Odor-shock memory in "Drosophila melanogaster" consists of heterogeneous components each with different dynamics. We report that a null mutant for the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein Synapsin entails a memory deficit selectively in early memory, leaving later memory as well as sensory motor function unaffected. Notably, a consolidated…
Descriptors: Memory, Olfactory Perception, Drug Use, Genetics
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Kaun, Karla R.; Hendel, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Sokolowski, Marla B. – Learning & Memory, 2007
Animals must be able to find and evaluate food to ensure survival. The ability to associate a cue with the presence of food is advantageous because it allows an animal to quickly identify a situation associated with a good, bad, or even harmful food. Identifying genes underlying these natural learned responses is essential to understanding this…
Descriptors: Entomology, Genetics, Association (Psychology), Conditioning
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Gerber, Bertram; Giurfa, Martin; Guerrieri, Fernando; Lachnit, Harald – Learning & Memory, 2005
Blocking occurs when previous training with a stimulus A reduces (blocks) subsequent learning about a stimulus B, when A and B are trained in compound. The question of whether blocking exists in olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honeybees is under debate. The last published accounts on blocking in honeybees state that…
Descriptors: Perception, Stimuli, Conditioning, Control Groups
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Michels, Birgit; Diegelmann, Soren; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Schwenkert, Isabell; Buchner, Erich; Gerber, Bertram – Learning & Memory, 2005
Synapsins are evolutionarily conserved, highly abundant vesicular phosphoproteins in presynaptic terminals. They are thought to regulate the recruitment of synaptic vesicles from the reserve pool to the readily-releasable pool, in particular when vesicle release is to be maintained at high spiking rates. As regulation of transmitter release is a…
Descriptors: Animals, Associative Learning, Role, Neurology